Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana

San Pedro, Argentina

Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana

San Pedro, Argentina
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Cockle K.L.,CONICET | Cockle K.L.,University of British Columbia | Martin K.,University of British Columbia | Martin K.,Environment Canada | Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2017

An important goal for the conservation of tropical forest biodiversity is to maintain adequate supplies of tree cavities to support diverse communities of cavity-nesting and roosting vertebrates over the long term, especially in human-modified landscapes. The conservation and replacement of nesting cavities depend critically on cavity persistence, which is predicted to decline with increasing anthropogenic impact to the habitat, and to vary according to characteristics of trees and excavators. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to study the factors influencing persistence of 277 cavities used by 43 species of nesting birds in 38 species of trees, across a gradient of human impact in the subtropical Atlantic Forest of Argentina, 2004–2016. Median cavity persistence was 6 years, with 79% of cavity losses caused by the collapse of either the whole tree or the section of the tree holding the cavity. Contrary to predictions, cavity persistence did not vary across habitats (primary forest, degraded forest, farm) or excavator types (true woodpecker vs. weak excavator). Persistence was highest (median > 10 years) for non-excavated cavities in live trunks of healthy trees, and increased with tree size and species-specific wood density. Thus, although logging and conversion to farmland remove most cavities, the cavities that remain in these human-modified habitats provide high quality, multi-annual nest sites for forest birds. Preserving and restoring these cavities should be a priority for conservation of forest vertebrates. The positive effect of species-specific wood density on cavity persistence suggests a trade-off in rates of cavity turnover, whereby cavities are produced early but lost quickly in fast-growing (low wood density) pioneer tree species, and produced late but persist much longer in slow-growing (high wood density) climax species. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Cockle K.L.,Louisiana State University | Cockle K.L.,University of British Columbia | Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Lammertink M.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Cavity-nesting vertebrates are an important component of biodiversity in tropical and subtropical forests, but their persistence will increasingly depend on remnant trees in logged forest and agricultural areas. To identify key habitat features for conservation, we examined the factors that influenced daily nest survival for a community of cavity-nesting birds along a gradient of human impact, from primary Atlantic Forest through logged forest to farms. We used logistic-exposure models to determine how characteristics of the habitat, nest tree, cavity, and timing influenced daily nest survival. Overall, predation and/or usurpation caused 92% of nest failures. Daily survival rates ranged 0.961-0.992 for five species of birds that could be studied best, giving probabilities of 0.19-0.62 of survival from laying to fledging. The top models predicting nest survival included cavity and tree characteristics but no habitat variables (canopy cover, forest condition, or distance to forest edge). Small birds (12-128. g) experienced higher nest survival in cavities with smaller entrance diameters, higher above the ground. Large birds (141-400. g) experienced higher nest survival in living trees than in dead trees. Birds experienced similar nest survival in primary forest, logged forest, and farms. Our results highlight the conservation value of cavity-bearing trees in anthropogenic habitats. A pressing policy issue for tropical and subtropical forests is to move beyond minimum diameter cutting limits and instead focus on retention of large old trees. © 2015.

Cockle K.L.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,Louisiana State University | Cockle K.L.,University of British Columbia | Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2013

We report on the breeding biology of the White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes albicollis), a species endemic to the Atlantic forest of South America, based on 16 nesting attempts in 11 cavities (9 natural tree cavities and 2 nest boxes) in Misiones, northeastern Argentina. Natural cavities were 3.3-8.3 cm in diameter and 46-103 cm in depth, and generated by decay processes (not woodpeckers) at heights of 3-17 m in live trees 29-106 cm in diameter at breast height. White-throated Woodcreepers laid 2-4 eggs on alternate days, on a bed comprised of bark flakes, leaf fragments and seed pods. Incubation bouts (n = 3) were more than 1 hr 40 mins. Incubation lasted 17 days and the nestling period 18-22 days, shorter than the congeneric Great Rufous Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes major). Both adults brought nest material, incubated the eggs, fed the nestlings, and removed fecal sacs; however, we suspect that the male contributed more to fecal sac removal. Both adults roosted in the cavity a few nights before eggs were laid, but only one adult did so during the incubation and nestling periods. Nestlings were fed arthropods and small vertebrates at an average rate of 3 visits/hr with no change in delivery rate over the nestling period. Adults defended their nests from four bird species but shared one cavity with a roosting female Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus) throughout their incubation period. We confirm that the White-throated Woodcreeper exhibits biparental care like the Great Rufous Woodcreeper, the Dendrocolaptes and the Lepidocolaptes, but in contrast to Sittasomus, Dendrocincla and Xiphorhynchus. We recommend studies with banded individuals to determine the relative contribution of each parent. © 2013 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Bodrati A.,Maimónides University | Cockle K.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.,Maimónides University | And 6 more authors.
Cotinga | Year: 2010

Among the most diverse and threatened regions in the world is the Atlantic Forest of south-east Brazil, eastern Paraguay and the province of Misiones in Argentina. Only c.8-10% of this forest remains, nearly all of it degraded by selective logging. During 341 days in 1997-2010, we studied the avifauna of one of the few remaining patches of mature Atlantic Forest in Argentina, Cruce Caballero Provincial Park. In and around this 600-ha park we identified 312 species of birds in 53 families, 280 of them documented by tape-recordings or photographs. Of these species, 19 are globally threatened, 50 threatened in Argentina, and 73 endemic to the Atlantic Forest. The park conserves key populations of Helmeted Woodpecker Dryocopus galeatus, Araucaria Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura setaria, Bay-ringed Tyrannulet Phylloscartes sylviolus and São Paulo Tyrannulet P. paulista. Other threatened species, including White-bearded Antshrike Biatas nigropectus, Canebrake Groundcreeper Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides and Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea are more common outside the park in the mosaic of small farms and forest fragments between San Pedro and Santa Rosa. Black-fronted Piping Guan Pipile jacutinga appears to be extirpated from the park and Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana is apparently extirpated from Argentina. We did not record Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis and we consider it hypothetical for the park. The mass flowering and death of takuapi bamboo Merostachys claussenii in 2004-07 generated major changes in the understorey vegetation, resulting in changes in the presence and abundance of many species. To conserve the avifauna of this small Atlantic Forest park it is of key importance to continue to improve environmental education in the surrounding farmlands. Isolation of the park can be avoided by adding neighbouring lots that still support native forest, and by providing small-holder farmers with technical and financial support to promote sustainable crops such as Araucaria angustifolia, rather than the current model of slash-and-burn tobacco farming.

Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Bodrati A.,Maimónides University | Cockle K.L.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,Maimónides University | And 2 more authors.
Ornitologia Neotropical | Year: 2011

We provide the first description of the nest of the Scalloped Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus), its clutch size, nestlings, and nesting behavior from prospecting to fledging, based on 102 h of observation at a nest in the subtropical Atlantic forest at Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero, province of Misiones, Argentina. The nest was in a long vertical crack, 2.5 m high in the trunk of a cedro (Cedrela fissilis). The two adults filled the bottom of the cavity with bark flakes to a height of 11 cm. They took turns incubating the three eggs with 100% attentiveness for 15-16 days, and fed the two nestlings a diet of arthropods, especially caterpillars. After the male died, the female raised the nestlings alone and they fledged two days apart, 18 and 19 days after hatching. The Scalloped Woodcreepers were observed on four occasions defending their nest against potential predators and cavity competitors (White-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes albicollis; Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Melanerpes flavifrons; Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus). Our observations of nest construction, incubation period, nestling development, nestling period, and parental behavior for Scalloped Woodcreepers were similar to published observations for Streak-headed Woodcreepers (Lepidocolaptes souleyetti) and Spot-crowned Woodcreepers (L affinis) of tropical Central America; however, Scalloped Woodcreepers had longer bouts on the nest and higher nest-attentiveness during incubation, and in these characteristics were similar to Planalto Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) that breed at the same site in northeastern Argentina. © The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

Areta J.I.,CONICET | Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Thom G.,Programa de Pos Graduacao Em Zoologia | Rupp A.E.,Regional University of Blumenau | And 4 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2013

Semelparous woody bamboos flower fairly synchronously and in clocklike fashion after many years, providing abundant and nutritious seeds. However, this resource is ephemeral, localized, and unpredictable from the perspective of birds that feed on those seeds. Birds specializing on bamboo seeds track this food source and are nomadic. We recorded Temminck's Seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) at 29 localities and the Buffy-fronted Seedeater (S. frontalis) at 23 localities in Argentina, Paraguay, and southeastern Brazil. In these species, nomadism is unassociated with any seasonal factor: birds may persist year round over several consecutive years if the seed supply is constant enough. Most occurrences and all breeding records were related to masting of bamboo; records of isolated birds away from seeding bamboo must represent individuals searching for bamboo patches. We report winter breeding of these species for the first time and demonstrate that the supply of bamboo seeds is the main limitation to their breeding. On a broad spatiotemporal scale, large-seeded bamboos (e.g., Guadua spp.) may function as strong population pumps, small-seeded bamboos (e.g., Chusquea spp.) as maintenance stations. Both species fed mostly on bamboo seeds, occasionally on bamboo flowers, and rarely on alternative food sources. They consumed insects frequently and occurred in mixed-species flocks, especially during autumn and winter. Creation of a network of protected areas is essential to preserve bamboo patches that flower at different times and localities in sufficiently large quantities to guarantee the long-term survival of the peculiarly dynamic populations of bamboo seedeaters. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2013.

Klavins J.,Final de 1 de Mayo | Merida E.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Villafane N.A.,Final de 1 de Mayo
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2014

We describe the second record of the White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis anting with a millipede in South America, and the first such record for Argentina. The woodcreeper rubbed the millipede against its wings while perched at the base of a tree and on the ground. The anting seemed to not seriously injure the millipede, identified as a species of the Rhinocricidae (Spirobolida).

Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,CONICET | Cockle K.L.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Ornitologia Neotropical | Year: 2015

The genus Campylorhamphus (Furnariidae: Dendrocolaptinae) is poorly known in terms of natural history and reproduction. Here we describe aspects of reproduction from three nests of the Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) in the Chaco of Argentina, and from one nest of the Black-billed Scythebill (C. falcularius) in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina. One of the nests of C. trochilirostris was in a cavity excavated by a woodpecker. The remaining nests were in cavities formed by natural decay. Both species had a clutch size of two. Two adults participated in incubation at each nest, bringing pieces of bark when they entered the cavity. Incubation bouts were 50 ± 3 min (mean ± SE) for C. trochilirostris (n = 3) and 57 ± 13 min for C. falcularius (n = 8). The nest of C. falcularius was depredated during the incubation period. In C. trochilirostris both adults delivered arthropods to nestlings and removed fecal sacs. They brought food on average 5.8 times/h and removed fecal sacs 2.5 times/h when the nestlings were feathered. Campylorhamphus should be included among the genera of Dendrocolaptinae with biparental care, along with Dendrocolaptes, Xiphocolaptes, Dendroplex, and Lepidocolaptes, but in contrast to Dendrocincla, Xiphorhynchus, and Sittasomus.

The reproductive biology of the genus Hylopezus is little known. We describe a nest, eggs, habitat, and incubation behavior of Hylopezus nattereri at Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero (Misiones, Argentina). The nest was a simple, loose platform of twigs and dry leaves, with a more elaborate lining of petioles, roots, and hyphae of the fungus Marasmius. It was supported by the curved branch of a shrub, 31 cm above the ground. The eggs measured 24.5 x 19.1 mm and 23.1 x 18.5 mm. They were opaque white with light blue-green tones, covered with irregular brown, grey and black speckles of various sizes. The nest was attended by two adults, which differed in size and coloration. They incubated 97% of the time we studied the nest, with on-bouts that averaged 65 min (SD: 35 min, range: 24-104). One adult whistled from the nest at dusk, before leaving the nest to the other adult overnight.

Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Cockle K.L.,University of British Columbia | Di Sallo F.G.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana
Ornitologia Neotropical | Year: 2014

Little is known of the natural history and reproduction of the antthrushes (family Formicariidae). Here we provide new information on the breeding biology of the Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona) in Misiones province, Argentina. We found 13 nests from September to December in primary Atlantic forest, in tree cavities produced by wood decay (not excavated by woodpeckers). The cavities were 5.4 ± 0.8 m (mean ± SE) above the ground (range = 1.7-9.6 m); their entrances were at least 4 cm in diameter; and their vertical depth was 111 ± 27 cm (range = 32-312 cm). Before eggs were laid, both adults used leaves to cover the cavity floor or construct a platform mid-cavity. The 2-3 white eggs were incubated by both adults, with bouts lasting 119 ± 11 min (range = 82-145 min). From observations at two nests, we estimate the incubation period at 18 days. Adults brought leaves when they arrived to incubate, forming a wall of green leaves around their eggs. Nestlings were covered in violet-tinted grey down when they hatched, they had open eyes on day 10, and pin feathers were opening on their bodies and wings on day 16. Both adults fed the nestlings arthropods (51% caterpillars), taking on average 2.6 ± 0.2 prey items at a time (range = 1-7). As the nestling period progressed, the adults visited the nest less frequently but brought more prey items per visit. They removed fecal sacs beginning on day 8. Each adult used a different sector of the forest and had its own established route to arrive at the nest. Nestlings fledged after 22-23 days, making a short flight when an adult arrived at the cavity. The fledglings looked like adults but had shorter tails; shorter, lighter-colored bill; and a remnant of the yellow gape flanges. Several aspects of nesting were similar to the Black-faced Antthrush (Formicarius analis), but more studies are needed to determine whether these patterns can be generalized to the rest of the family. Accepted 18 December 2014. © 2014 The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

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