Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste

San José, Costa Rica

Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste

San José, Costa Rica
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Kreimer A.R.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Hildesheim A.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Herrero R.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background Three-dose regimens for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expensive and difficult to complete, especially in settings where the need for cervical cancer prevention is greatest. Methods We evaluated the vaccine efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine Cervarix in our Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine and were followed for incident HPV16 or HPV18 infection that persisted in visits that were 10 or more months apart (median follow-up 4.2 years). After excluding women who had no follow-up or who were HPV16 and HPV18 DNA positive at enrollment, 5967 women received three vaccine doses (2957 HPV vaccine vs 3010 control vaccine), 802 received two doses (422 HPV vs 380 control), and 384 received one dose (196 HPV vs 188 control). Reasons for receiving fewer doses and other pre-and post-randomization characteristics were balanced within each dosage group between women receiving the HPV and control vaccines.ResultsIncident HPV16 or HPV18 infections that persisted for 1 year were unrelated to dosage of the control vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was 80.9% for three doses of the HPV vaccine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.1% to 87.7%; 25 and 133 events in the HPV and control arms, respectively), 84.1% for two doses (95% CI = 50.2% to 96.3%; 3 and 17 events), and 100% for one dose (95% CI = 66.5% to 100%; 0 and 10 events).ConclusionFour years after vaccination of women who appeared to be uninfected, this nonrandomized analysis suggests that two doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine, and maybe even one dose, are as protective as three doses. © 2011 The Author.


Kreimer A.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Struyf F.,GSK Vaccines | Del Rosario-Raymundo M.R.,San Pablo Colleges Medical Center | Hildesheim A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: There is some evidence to suggest that one or two doses of the HPV vaccine provides similar protection to the three-dose regimen. The main aim of the study was to ascertain HPV-16/18 vaccine efficacy in both full and naive cohorts and to explore protection conferred against non-vaccine HPV types, by number of doses received. Methods: Summary data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and ~the PATRICIA trial (. NCT001226810), two phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trials of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women, were combined in a post-hoc analysis (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] e-track number 202142) to investigate the efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine after 4 years of follow-up. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine; yet, some received fewer doses. After exclusion of women with less than 12 months of follow-up or those who were HPV-16/18 DNA-positive at enrolment (for the HPV-16/18 endpoint), we calculated vaccine efficacy against one-time detection of incident HPV infections after three, two, and one dose(s). The primary study endpoint was one-time detection of first incident HPV-16/18 infections accumulated during the follow-up phase. Findings: We assessed vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infection in the modified total vaccinated cohort (22 327 received three doses, 1185 two doses, 543 one dose). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infections for three doses was 77·0% (95% CI 74·7-79·1), two doses was 76·0% (62·0-85·3), and one dose was 85·7% (70·7-93·7). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-31/33/45 infections for three doses was 59·7% (56·0-63·0), two doses was 37·7% (12·4-55·9), and one dose was 36·6% (-5·4 to 62·2). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infection for two-dose women who received their second dose at 1 month was 75·3% (54·2-87·5) and 82·6% (42·3-96·1) for those who received the second dose at 6 months (CVT data only). Vaccine efficacy against HPV-31/33/45 for two-dose women who received their second dose at 6 months (68·1%, 27·0-87·0; CVT data only), but not those receiving it at one month (10·1%, -42·0 to 43·3), was similar to the three-dose group. Interpretation: 4 years after vaccination of women aged 15-25 years, one and two doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine seem to protect against cervical HPV-16/18 infections, similar to the protection provided by the three-dose schedule. Two doses separated by 6 months additionally provided some cross-protection. These data argue for a direct assessment of one-dose efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Funding: US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and Ministry of Health of Costa Rica (CVT); GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA (PATRICIA). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Clarke M.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Clarke M.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Gage J.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV, we analyzed data from our large population-based study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We examined vaginal pH and the risk of HPV infection, cytological abnormalities, and C. trachomatis infection.Methods: Our study included 9,165 women aged 18-97 at enrollment with a total of 28,915 visits (mean length of follow-up = 3.4 years). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV infection (both overall and single versus multiple types) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), the cytomorphic manifestation of HPV infection. The relationship between enrollment vaginal pH and C. trachomatis infection was assessed by logistic regression. Results were stratified by age at visit.Results: Detection of HPV was positively associated with vaginal pH, mainly in women < 35 years (p-trend = 0.009 and 0.007 for women aged < 25 and 25-34 years, respectively). Elevated vaginal pH was associated with 30% greater risk of infection with multiple HPV types and with LSIL, predominantly in women younger than 35 and 65+ years of age. Detection of C. trachomatis DNA was associated with increased vaginal pH in women < 25 years (OR 2.2 95% CI 1.0-5.0).Conclusions: Our findings suggest a possible association of the cervical microenvironment as a modifier of HPV natural history in the development of cervical precancer and cancer. Future research should include studies of vaginal pH in a more complex assessment of hormonal changes and the cervicovaginal microbiome as they relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia. © 2012 Clarke et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mirabello L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sun C.,Yeshiva University | Ghosh A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Background Previous studies have suggested an association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome methylation and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (ie, cervical precancer) and cancer, but the Results have been inconsistent. Methods We designed a case-control study within a large prospective cohort of women who underwent multiple screenings for cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Diagnostic specimens were collected at the time of CIN3 diagnosis (n = 30 case subjects) and persistent HPV16 infection (persistence; n = 35 case subjects), prediagnostic specimens at the first HPV16-positive screening visit (n = 20 CIN3 case subjects; n = 35 persistence case subjects), and control specimens from women with infection clearance within 2 years (n = 34 control subjects). DNA extracted from specimens (cervical cells) was analyzed for methylation levels at 67 CpG sites throughout the HPV16 genome using pyrosequencing. Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to account for multiple testing. Associations between methylation levels and risk of CIN3 or persistence were assessed using logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results Increased methylation in diagnostic vs control specimens at nine CpG sites, three in each L1, L2, and E2/E4 genomic regions, was associated with an increased risk of CIN3 (third tertile [high] vs first and second tertiles combined [low], OR = 3.29 [95% CI = 1.16 to 9.34] to 11.12 [95% CI = 2.29 to 76.80]) and persistence. High methylation at three of these CpG sites was associated with a much higher risk when combined compared with low methylation at these sites (OR = 52, 95% CI = 4.0 to 670). In prediagnostic vs control specimens, increased methylation at a CpG site (nucleotide position 4261) in L2 was associated with an increased risk of CIN3. Conclusion In this HPV16-infected cohort, increased methylation of CpG sites within the HPV16 genome before diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis was associated with cervical precancer. © 2012 Oxford University Press.


Safaeian M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Quint K.,DDL Diagnostic Laboratories | Schiffman M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2010

BackgroundCofactors might affect the risk of the rare progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) to cervical premalignancy to invasive cancer. Some studies have observed that Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with increased risk for cervical cancer. In a large prospective cohort, we assessed the role of C trachomatis in cervical premalignancy and addressed confounding by HPV.MethodsWe identified 182 women with prevalent and 132 women with incident histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2), grade 3 (CIN3), or cervical cancer (CIN2+) in the Costa Rica HPV Natural History Study. Control subjects were 995 (approximately 10% of the 10049) subjects who were randomly selected from the same study. Cervical HPV status at enrollment was determined by MY09/MY11 polymerase chain reaction amplification and dot-blot hybridization. The presence of C trachomatis DNA in cervical exfoliated cells at enrollment was determined by a novel serovar-specific polymerase chain reaction-based C trachomatis detection and genotyping assay. Plasma drawn at enrollment from each subject was used to determine C trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG) status. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between C trachomatis and CIN2+, taking into account possible confounding by HPV.ResultsC trachomatis positivity at enrollment was associated with CIN2+ and concurrent and subsequent carcinogenic HPV infection. To account for confounding by HPV status, we restricted the analysis to women positive for carcinogenic HPV DNA at enrollment and found no association between C trachomatis status (as assessed by DNA or IgG) at enrollment and combined prevalent and/or incident CIN2+ (for C trachomatis DNA positivity, odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.42 to 1.41; for C trachomatis seropositivity, odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 1.41).ConclusionsWe found no association between C trachomatis status, as assessed by DNA or IgG, and risk of cervical premalignancy, after controlling for carcinogenic HPV-positive status. Previous positive associations between C trachomatis and cervical premalignancy could have been caused, in part, by an increased susceptibility to HPV infection. © 2010 The Author.


Kreimer A.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gonzalez P.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Katki H.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Porras C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of about 1·5 per 100 000 women yearly), but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections cause most cases of anal cancer. We assessed efficacy of an AS04-adjuvanted HPV 16 and HPV 18 vaccine against anal infection with HPV 16, HPV 18, or both (HPV 16/18). Methods: Women from Costa Rica were registered between June 28, 2004, and Dec 21, 2005, in a randomised double-blind controlled trial that was designed to assess vaccine efficacy against persistent cervical HPV 16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions. Eligible women were residents of Guanacaste and selected areas of Puntarenas, Costa Rica, age 18-25 years, in good general health, willing to provide informed consent, and were not pregnant or breastfeeding. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV vaccine (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) or a control hepatitis A vaccine (modified preparation of Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium). Vaccines were administered in three 0·5 mL doses at enrolment, 1 month, and 6 months. Women, selected at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination, provided anal specimens for assessment of vaccine efficacy against anal HPV 16/18 infection. Prevalence of anal HPV 16/18 infections, reported as vaccine efficacy, was the primary endpoint of the study described here. Vaccine efficacy against cervical HPV 16/18 infection in the same women at the 4-year visit was used as a comparator. Analyses were done in a restricted cohort of women who were negative for both cervical HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA and who were HPV 16 and HPV 18 seronegative before enrolment (HPV naive), and also in the full cohort of women who provided an anal specimen. Investigators were masked to group assignment. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128661. Findings: All women who attended the final blinded study visit and consented to anal specimen collection were included in the analysis (4210 of 6352 eligible women). In the full cohort, vaccine efficacy against prevalent HPV 16/18 infection measured one-time, 4 years post vaccination was lower at the anus (62·0%, 95% CI 47·1-73·1) compared with the cervix (76·4%, 67·0-83·5; p for interaction by anatomical site 0·031). In the restricted cohort, vaccine efficacy against anal HPV 16/18 infection was 83·6% (66·7-92·8), which was similar to vaccine efficacy against cervical HPV 16/18 infection (87·9%, 77·4-94·0). Safety issues were not addressed in the current analysis. Additional safety data will be published later in a separate article. Interpretation: The AS04-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV infection, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naive at enrolment. Funding: National Cancer Institute with contributions from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health. Vaccine was provided by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kreimer A.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bhatia R.K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Messeguer A.L.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Gonzalez P.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a common infection in the anogenital tract. HPV16 DNA detected in oral specimens has recently been identified as a risk factor for some oropharyngeal cancers. The reported prevalence of oral HPV infection from individual studies is highly variable. METHODS: We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from published studies (n = 18) that detected oral HPV DNA in 4581 cancer-free subjects to determine the pooled prevalence (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of HPV16, carcinogenic HPV, and any HPV. RESULTS: 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.7%) of 3977 healthy subjects had oral HPV16, 3.5% (95% CI: 3.0-4.1) of 4441 subjects had carcinogenic HPV, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.9-5.1) of 4070 subjects were positive for any HPV. Oral HPV16 accounted for 28% of all HPV detected in the oral region. Men (47 of 1017) and women (117 of 3690) had nearly exactly the same prevalence of any oral HPV detected (4.6% vs. 4.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16, a common anogenital infection, was rarely detected in oral specimens. However, a small but noteworthy proportion of healthy individuals have oral HPV infections with types known to cause cancer in the oral region. Copyright © 2010 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association.


Safaeian M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Porras C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Schiffman M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2010

BackgroundInfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 or HPV18 elicits an antibody response, but whether the elicited antibodies protect women against subsequent infection by a homologous HPV type compared with seronegative women is unknown.MethodsStudy participants were women aged 18-25 years at enrollment in the control group of the ongoing National Cancer Institute-sponsored, community-based, randomized HPV16/18 Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. At enrollment, 2813 participants were negative for cervical HPV16 DNA and 2950 for HPV18 DNA. Women were interviewed regarding sociodemographic data and medical and health history. Medical and pelvic examinations were conducted for all consenting sexually experienced women. Serum samples taken at enrollment were tested for total HPV16/18 antibodies with a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cervical specimens were tested for type-specific HPV DNA over 4 years of follow-up. Using Poisson regression, we compared rate ratios of newly detected cervical HPV16 or HPV18 infection among homologous HPV-seropositive and HPV-seronegative women, adjusting for age, education, marital status, lifetime number of sexual partners, and smoking.ResultsThere were 231 newly detected HPV16 infections during 5886 person-years among HPV16-seronegative women compared with 12 newly detected HPV16 infections during 581 person-years among HPV16-seropositive women with the highest HPV16 sero-levels. There were 136 newly detected HPV18 infections during 6352 person-years among HPV18-seronegative women compared with six new infections detected during 675 person-years among HPV18 seropositives with the highest sero-levels. After controlling for risk factors associated with newly detected HPV infection, having high HPV16 antibody titer at enrollment was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent HPV16 infection (women in the highest tertile of HPV16 antibody titers, adjusted rate ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.86 vs HPV16-seronegative women). Similarly, having high HPV18 antibody titer at enrollment was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent HPV18 infection (women in the highest tertile of HPV18 antibody titers, adjusted rate ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.14 to 0.76 vs HPV18-seronegative women).ConclusionIn this study population, having high antibody levels against HPV16 and HPV18 following natural infection was associated with reduced risk of subsequent HPV16 and HPV18 infections. © 2010 The Author.


Kemp T.J.,SAIC | Hildesheim A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Safaeian M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dauner J.G.,SAIC | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p< 0.001; HPV45, p< 0.001) and correlated with HPV16/18 neutralizing titers, respectively. These findings raise the possibility that cross-neutralizing antibodies are effectors of cross-protection observed for the HPV16/18 vaccine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vaccarella S.,IARC | Franceschi S.,IARC | Snijders P.J.F.,VU University Amsterdam | Herrero R.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2010

To understand viral interactions and the cross-reactivity of natural or vaccine-induced responses, we investigated whether multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, particularly certain combinations of types, have the tendency to cluster together. Cervical cell samples were collected from women in the framework of the IARC HPV Prevalence Surveys.Women with a cytology diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse were excluded, leaving 13,961 women for this analysis. HPV DNA was assessed using a general GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR. HPV genotyping was done using enzyme immunoassay or reverse line blot analysis. Logistic regression with type-specific HPV positivity as an outcome was used, adjusted for age, study area, and lifetime number of sexual partners.Woman-level random effects were added to represent unobservable risk factors common to all HPV types. The observed-to-expected ratio was 1.20 (95% credible interval, 1.14-1.26) for infection with two HPV types and 1.02 (95% credible interval, 0.91-1.12) for three for more types, with the best possible adjustment. Among combinations of specific HPV types, the tendency to cluster increased with the genetic similarity of the L1 region. High observed-to-expected ratios were found for closely homologous types, including HPV33/58, 18/45, 33/35, and 31/35. The excess of multiple infections, however, was clearly evident only when enzyme immunoassay, and not reverse line blot, was used as the genotyping method. The different results by genotyping method suggest that the apparent clustering of HPV infections was an artifact of the measurement process. Further investigation is required to evaluate other widely used HPV detection methods. ©2010 AACR.

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