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Nizon M.,University of Paris Descartes | Huber C.,University of Paris Descartes | De Leonardis F.,University of Pavia | Merrina R.,University of Paris Descartes | And 25 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2012

Desbuquois dysplasia (DD) is characterized by antenatal and postnatal short stature, multiple dislocations, and advanced carpal ossification. Two forms have been distinguished on the basis of the presence (type 1) or the absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies. We have identified mutations in calcium activated nucleotidase 1 gene (CANT1) in DD type 1. Recently, CANT1 mutations have been reported in the Kim variant of DD, characterized by short metacarpals and elongated phalanges. DD has overlapping features with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations (SDCD) due to Carbohydrate (chondroitin 6) Sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3) mutations. We screened CANT1 and CHST3 in 38 DD cases (6 type 1 patients, 1 Kim variant, and 31 type 2 patients) and found CANT1 mutations in all DD type 1 cases, the Kim variant and in one atypical DD type 2 expanding the clinical spectrum of hand anomalies observed with CANT1 mutations. We also identified in one DD type 2 case CHST3 mutation supporting the phenotype overlap with SDCD. To further define function of CANT1, we studied proteoglycan synthesis in CANT1 mutated patient fibroblasts, and found significant reduced GAG synthesis in presence of β-D-xyloside, suggesting that CANT1 plays a role in proteoglycan metabolism. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

McLarren K.W.,Provincial Medical Genetics Program | McLarren K.W.,University of British Columbia | Severson T.M.,University of British Columbia | Du Souich C.,Provincial Medical Genetics Program | And 43 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

CK syndrome (CKS) is an X-linked recessive intellectual disability syndrome characterized by dysmorphism, cortical brain malformations, and an asthenic build. Through an X chromosome single-nucleotide variant scan in the first reported family, we identified linkage to a 5 Mb region on Xq28. Sequencing of this region detected a segregating 3 bp deletion (c.696-698del [p.Lys232del]) in exon 7 of NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), a gene that encodes an enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We also found that males with intellectual disability in another reported family with an NSDHL mutation (c.1098 dup [p.Arg367SerfsX33]) have CKS. These two mutations, which alter protein folding, show temperature-sensitive protein stability and complementation in Erg26-deficient yeast. As described for the allelic disorder CHILD syndrome, cells and cerebrospinal fluid from CKS patients have increased methyl sterol levels. We hypothesize that methyl sterol accumulation, not only cholesterol deficiency, causes CKS, given that cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels are normal in males with CKS. In summary, CKS expands the spectrum of cholesterol-related disorders and insight into the role of cholesterol in human development. © 2010 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

Ferrier R.A.,Medical Genetic Services | Connolly-Wilson M.,Provincial Medical Genetics Program | Fitzpatrick J.,McGill University | Grewal S.,Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Genetic Counseling | Year: 2013

Numerous groups of health professionals have undertaken the task of defining core competencies for their profession. The goal of establishing core competencies is to have a defined standard for such professional needs as practice guidelines, training curricula, certification, continuing competency and re-entry to practice. In 2006, the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors (CAGC) recognized the need for uniform practice standards for the profession in Canada, given the rapid progress of genetic knowledge and technologies, the expanding practice of genetic counsellors and the increasing demand for services. We report here the process by which the CAGC Practice Based Competencies were developed and then validated via two survey cycles, the first within the CAGC membership, and the second with feedback from external stakeholders. These competencies were formally approved in 2012 and describe the integrated skills, attitudes and judgment that genetic counsellors in Canada require in order to perform the services and duties that fall within the practice of the profession responsibly, safely, effectively and ethically. © 2013 National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc.

Woodbury-Smith M.,McMaster University | Woodbury-Smith M.,Applied Genomics | Paterson A.D.,Applied Genomics | Paterson A.D.,University of Toronto | And 22 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Copy number variation has emerged as an important cause of phenotypic variation, particularly in relation to some complex disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one such disorder, in which evidence is emerging for an etiological role for some rare penetrant de novo and rare inherited copy number variants (CNVs). De novo variation, however, does not always explain the familial nature of ASD, leaving a gap in our knowledge concerning the heritable genetic causes of this disorder. Extended pedigrees, in which several members have ASD, provide an opportunity to investigate inherited genetic risk factors. In this current study, we recruited 19 extended ASD pedigrees, and, using the Illumina HumanOmni2.5 BeadChip, conducted genome-wide CNV interrogation. We found no definitive evidence of an etiological role for segregating CNVs in these pedigrees, and no evidence that linkage signals in these pedigrees are explained by segregating CNVs. However, a small number of putative de novo variants were transmitted from BAP parents to their ASD offspring, and evidence emerged for a rare duplication CNV at 11p13.3 harboring two putative ‘developmental/neuropsychiatric’ susceptibility gene(s), GSTP1 and NDUFV1. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Fernandez B.A.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Roberts W.,The Autism Research Unit | Chung B.,Hospital for Sick Children | Weksberg R.,Hospital for Sick Children | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background Recurrent microdeletions and microduplications of w555 kb at 16p11.2 confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in up to 1% of ASD patients. No physical or behavioural features have been identified that distinguish these individuals as having a distinct ASD subtype, but clinical data are limited. Methods We report five autistic probands identified by microarray analysis with copy number variation (CNV) of 16p11.2 (three deletions, two duplications). Each patient was assessed for ASD and dysmorphic features. We also describe a deletion positive 26-month-old female who has developmental delay (DD) and autistic features. Results Proband 1 (female with ASD, de novo deletion) is not dysmorphic. Proband 2 (male with autism, de novo deletion) and proband 3 and his brother (males with autism, inherited deletions) are dysmorphic, but the two probands do not resemble one another. The mother of proband 3 has mild mental retardation (MR), minor dysmorphism and meets the criteria for ASD. Proband 4 (dysmorphic autistic male, de novo duplication) had a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Proband 5 (nondysmorphic ASD female with a duplication) has two apparently healthy duplication positive relatives. Probands 1 and 2 have deletion negative siblings with ASD and Asperger syndrome, respectively. Proband 6 (a female with DD and an inherited duplication) is dysmorphic, but has oligohydramnios sequence. Conclusions The phenotypic spectrum associated with CNV at 16p11.2 includes ASD, MR/DD and/or possibly other primary psychiatric disorders. Compared with the microduplications, the reciprocal microdeletions are more likely to be penetrant and to be associated with nonspecific major or minor dysmorphism. There are deletion positive ASD probands with a less severe phenotype than deletion negative ASD siblings underscoring the significant phenotypic heterogeneity.

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