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Yang S.,Anhui Normal University | Yang S.,Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic Environment and Ecological Safety in Anhui | Wang M.,Anhui Normal University | Xie J.,Anhui Normal University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important crop worldwide challenged by a number of pests which cause enormous yield loss. Although extensive cultivation of transgenic Bt cotton has decreased the population growth of the most destructive pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the secondary pest like mirid bug has become a primary pest. In addition to the evolution of Bt toxin resistance in cotton bollworm, it is urgent to develop environment friendly and plant-derived pesticides for the integrated pest management. Induction of plant defense against pests is very common among higher plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a kind of plant growth regulator with a variety of biological function except for induced plant defense against herbivores. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the dosage-and exposure time-dependent induction of defense-related secondary metabolites and antinutritive/antidigestive enzymes in cotton seedlings by exogenous application of JA. The potential pest control nature of induced defense in seedlings of conventional cotton plants by JA was also discussed in terms of the fecundity, developmental time, mortality and parasitism of insects. We hypothesized that, as a ubiquitous phytohormone, JA should regulate the induced plant defense in cotton like those in some model plants including mustard, tobacco and tomato by increasing the contents of some feeding deterrent secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymes responsible for their synthesis, as well as the activities of antinutritive and antidigestive enzymes. Results of the present study suggested that 0.01 mmol/L, 0.1 mmol/L, and 1.0 mmol/L JA were effective concentrations in priming the pest resistance nature of six-foliage cotton seedlings within two weeks in terms of enhanced contents of cotton tannin and protease inhibitors (PIs) and increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT). In comparison, 0.1 mmol/L jasmonic acid was more effective in inducing PIs, PPO, POD and CAT than the other two concentrations tested, while 0.1 mmol/L and 1.0 mmol/L JA were equally powerful in priming tannin and PAL, and both JA concentrations were more effective than 0.01 mmol/L JA. We also found that JA concentration, time after JA exposure and their interaction have significant effects on tannin content, PPO activity and POD activity, and that JA concentration and time after JA exposure have significant effect on PIs content and PAL activity, while JA concentration and its interaction with exposure time after JA exposure have significant effects on CAT activity. In addition, analysis of the duration of JA-mediated defense suggested that the optimal induction effects occurred one day after JA treatment for POD, 7 d for PIs, 14 d for tannin, 1 d and 7 d for PPO, 7 d and 14 d for PAL, while no significance was observed for CAT. In summary, JA can enhance cotton defense against insects by the induction of defense-related chemicals like tannin, some antinutritive/antidigestive enzymes like PPO, POD, CAT, and enzyme related to the synthesis of tannin like PAL. Future work should focus on the real effects of induced defense against insects in terms of the feeding behavior, oviposition preference, ecological immunity, detoxification capacity, and tritrophic interaction among cotton plant, herbivore insects and natural enemies, thereby facilitating the discovery of the physiological, ecological and biochemical basis of JA-induced plant defense. Source


Wang N.,Anhui Normal University | Hu S.,Anhui Normal University | Wu D.,Anhui Normal University | Wang Y.,Anhui Normal University | Wang Y.,Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic Environment and Ecological Safety in Anhui
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Rapid development of industry and unceasing emergence of factories lead to an increased soil pollution and make it an urgent and rigorous environmental issue worldwide. During which, one of the most serious problems is metal pollution due to the growing risk of heavy metal uptake by human and livestock. Copper is an essential element for all organisms at low concentrations, while it is toxic when absorbed excessively. The normal concentration of copper in plant tissues is 5- 20 mg/ kg, and the toxicity effects are likely to occur if it exceeds the upper limit. During recent decades, in comparison with physical and chemical remediation, phytoremediation had been reported to be more effective, non-intrusive and less expensive. All these characteristics together with the aesthetically pleasing feature make it the most socially approved technology to remediate polluted soil. Ornamental plant has become a novel source of phytoremediation species due to their multi- functions: pollution monitoring and control as well as landscaping. Extensive studies of the tolerance and accumulation of heavy metal by plants underpinned their utilizations in the restoration of heavy metal contaminated soil. Phytoextraction, a form of phytoremediation, is one example of applying plants to remove contaminants from soil by concentrating them in the havrvestable parts and based on the hyper-accumulation capacity of heavy metal by certain species. To improve metal enrichment of plants, chelators could be used as activators of metal to facilitate the procedure of plants to absorb available metal. Citric acid (CA), a natural metal chelator, is a kind of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). And ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a representative kind of artificially synthesized metal chelators. Recently, numerous articles focused on the researches about activation of heavy metal by chelators. This paper explored the effects of CA and EDTA on the growth of Chlorophytum comosum, a type of ornamental plants, in copper-contaminated soil by pot-planting. The experiments included effects of CA and EDTA on content of available copper in soil, copper enrichment, morphological indicators, biomass, some physiological indexes and activities of antioxidant enzymes of C. comosum. The results showed that, the relationship, between influence of CA and EDTA on copper enrichment of C. comosum and capability of them on activating copper in soil, was a significantly positive correlation. CA could effectively improve the ability on copper absorption of C. comosum through activating copper in soil, and the best concentration was 5mmol/ L. However, higher metal enrichment inhibited the growth of plants, so the morphological indicators and biomass of C. comosum both showed a crosscurrent to the trend of copper enrichment uner treatments of CA. The influence of EDTA on copper enrichment of C. comosum was less intensively, and the effects on growth of C. comosum was also not significant. In contrast, the effects of CA on growth of C. comosum in copper- contaminated soil was superior to EDTA, which provided theoretical foundation and scientific basis for widely applying CA and EDTA in phytoremediation. Source


Yan A.,Anhui Normal University | Wu T.,Anhui Normal University | Wang Y.,Anhui Normal University | Wang Y.,Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic Environment and Ecological Safety in Anhui | Zhang X.,Anhui Normal University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Because of the economical and biological benefits, ornamental plant has become a new source for phytoremediation in recent years. In this study, three kinds of ornamental plants, Mimosa pudica, Tradescantia sillamontana and Porulaca afra were tested under five cadmium (Cd) application rate levels that range from 0mg·kg-1 to 100mg·kg-1 by pot-planting method. The growth indexes, physiological indexes and the Cd accumulation in them were studied after a growing period of 50 days. The results showed that Cd had distinct inhibition on the growth of plant, the average tolerance index of M. pudica, T. sillamontana and P. afra were 105.57, 81.35 and 79. 88 separately, and the most growth indexes of them had significant differences with the control group in Cd concentration of 50mg kg-1. The physiological indexes were also influenced by Cd stress obviously, in the content of photosynthetic pigment tested, chlorophyll a contents of M. pudica, T. sillamontana and P. afra were 83.74%, 60.64% and 60.64% separately, compared with the control group, while chlorophyll b contents of them were only 69.83%, 51.26% and 51.26% of the control, but both the contents of carotenoid and chlorophyll a/b values of them were not obviously changed, some of them even raised with the increased Cd concentration, these indicated that Cd do more damage to chlorophyll than to carotenoid, and chlorophyll b was the most sensitive one to Cd pollution in them. For the balance of superoxide system was destroyed under Cd stress, with the rise of Cd, the production rate of superoxide in M. pudica, T. sillamontana and P. afra were all increased, which lead to the accumulation of superoxide and the rise of the MDA contents in three ornamental plants, meanwhile, as a result of the destroyed cell membrane, the selective permeability of cells declined and the electrical conductivity of them were all moved up significantly, the production rate of superoxide, the contents of MDA and electrical conductivity were all correlated well with the Cd added concentration, and the variation range of M. pudica was the smallest, while P. afra was the highest among them. Forming the effects on the growth indexes and physiological indexes, we could found that the tolerance of Cd was M. pudica >T. sillamontana >P. afra. The accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in plant were also important indexes in choosing patient species. In our study, with the rise of the Cd the accumulation of Cd in both the root and the above ground parts of ornamental plants tested were all increased; P. afra had the highest accumulation in them as the Cd concentration in its root and the above ground parts reaching 612.37 mg·kg-1 and 259.47 mg·kg-1 separately in 100mg·kg-1, but the transform ability of Cd in T. sillamontana was the strongest under high Cd stress as the translocation factor of it were all above 0.6 from 10mg·kg-1 to 100mg·kg-1. The Cd concentration in these ornamental plants were all above 100mg·kg-1 when the add-concentration of Cd reached 100mg·kg-1 and the accumulation ability was P. afra >M. pudica > T. sillamontana. From the discussion above, we can reach a conclusion that M. pudica, T. sillamontana and P. afra all have high tolerance and strong accumulate ability to Cd, so they all have certain applied value in the treatment of Cd polluted areas. Source


Cheng S.-H.,Anhui Normal University | Cheng S.-H.,Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources | Cheng S.-H.,Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic Environment and Ecological Safety in Anhui | Yan J.-J.,Anhui Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

The mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus fasciatus (Cyprinidae, Barbinae) is a circular molecule of 16,589 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 r RNAs, 22 t RNAs and a non-coding D-loop region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most fish mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATG codon except for COI which use GTG as a start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the ND2, ND3, ND4, COII, Cytb and COIII which use single T or TA as a stop codon. The non-coding D-loop region is 938 bp long, located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the Cyprinidae. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Cheng S.-H.,Anhui Normal University | Cheng S.-H.,Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources | Cheng S.-H.,Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic Environment and Ecological Safety in Anhui | Yan J.-J.,Anhui Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

The mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae) is a circular molecule of 16,611 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a D-loop region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most fish mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATG codon except for COI which use GTG as start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the COII which use single T as stop codon. The D-loop region is 928 bp long, located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the Cyprinidae. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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