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Gloria A.,University of Teramo | Contri A.,University of Teramo | Wegher L.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | Vignola G.,University of Teramo | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Reproduction in dairy cows is based around the use of cryopreserved semen. Antibiotics are utilized to control bacterial contamination and growth in cryopreserved bull semen. The antibiotic resistance of some bacteria required the evaluation of new antibiotic combinations with a high level of antibacterial effectiveness and a negligible effect on spermatozoa. In this research, we studied the effect of the fluorinate carboxyquinolone ofloxacin and the combination of ceftiofur/tylosin on bull spermatozoa and in-field bacterial growth.In Experiment 1, the toxicity of different levels of ofloxacin and ceftiofur/tylosin was tested by the incubation of bull spermatozoa and the evaluation of sperm kinetic parameters, membranes and acrosome integrity after dilution, and at 60 and 120. min after incubation. The data reported in this study reveals that both antibiotic combinations, at all concentrations, seem to have a negligible effect on spermatozoa with respect to all of the parameters examined (p>0.05). Furthermore, progressive motility was significantly higher for sperm diluted with both antibiotic combinations compared with samples without antibiotics (p<0.01).In Experiment 2, the ability of ofloxacin or ceftiofur/tylosin to control bacterial growth during bovine semen cryopreservation was compared with the combination of gentamicin/tylosin/spectinomycin/lincomycin. A significant reduction in progressive motility was found in cooled semen with respect to all of the antibiotic treatments (p<0.05). However, the membrane integrity was found to significantly rise in frozen samples with, compared to samples without, antibiotics (p<0.05). In a bull, gentamicin, tylosin, spectinomycin, and lincomycin failed to control bacterial growth in the cryopreserved sample, while no such growth was found in samples extended with ceftiofur/tylosin or ofloxacin. In conclusion, both ceftiofur/tylosin and ofloxacin can be safely added to bull seminal extenders, and both can protect insemination doses from bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotic combinations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Contri A.,University of Teramo | Valorz C.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | Faustini M.,University of Milan | Wegher L.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | Carluccio A.,University of Teramo
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Computer-assisted sperm analyzers (CASA) have become the standard tool for evaluating sperm motility and kinetic patterns because they provide objective data for thousands of sperm tracks. However, these devices are not ready-to-use and standardization of analytical practices is a fundamental requirement. In this study, we evaluated the effects of some settings, such as frame rate and frames per field, chamber and time of analysis, and samples preparations, including thawing temperature, sperm sample concentration, and media used for dilution, on the kinetic results of bovine frozen-thawed semen using a CASA. In Experiment 1, the frame rate (30-60 frame/s) significantly affected motility parameters, whereas the number of frames per field (30 or 45) did not seem to affect sperm kinetics. In Experiment 2, the thawing protocol affects sperm motility and kinetic parameters. Sperm sample concentration significantly limited the opportunity to perform the analysis and the kinetic results. A concentration of 100 and 50 106 sperm/mL limited the device's ability to perform the analysis or gave wrong results, whereas 5, 10, 20, and 30 106 sperm/mL concentrations allowed the analysis to be performed, but with different results (Experiment 3). The medium used for the dilution of the sample, which is fundamental for a correct sperm head detection, affects sperm motility results (Experiment 4). In this study, Makler and Leja chambers were used to perform the semen analysis with CASA devices. The chamber used significantly affected motility results (Experiment 5). The time between chamber loading and analysis affected sperm velocities, regardless of chamber used. Based on results recorded in this study, we propose that the CASA evaluation of motility of bovine frozen-thawed semen using Hamilton-Thorne IVOS 12.3 should be performed using a frame rate of 60 frame/s and 30 frames per field. Semen should be diluted at least at 20 106 sperm/mL using PBS. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the type of chamber used and perform the analysis within 1 or 2 min, regardless of the chamber used. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gloria A.,University of Teramo | Carluccio A.,University of Teramo | Contri A.,University of Teramo | Wegher L.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | And 2 more authors.
Andrology | Year: 2013

In this study, the effect of the chamber used for the automated analysis of sperm motility by a computer-assisted semen analysis system on sperm kinematics was evaluated, and the cause of this effect was also verified. Twenty-three bull semen batches were thawed, and semen was diluted, aliquoted and analysed with six different chambers, (three capillary-loaded chambers and three droplet (DR)-loaded chambers). For each chamber type, each sample was analysed in quadruplicate, and the reliability of the analysis was tested using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Furthermore, sperm membrane integrity (MI) was evaluated, for each sample and chamber, in 12 randomly selected central and 12 edge fields. The ICC analysis showed that some parameters could have a significant variability related to the chamber. High stability of results was detected in Leja 4-chamber slide. Furthermore, as previously reported in other studies, capillary-loaded chambers seemed to affect the total and progressive motility and sperm velocities (average path velocity, straight line velocity and curvilinear velocity). These findings were corroborated by the evaluation of sperm MI that was significantly higher in the DR-loaded chambers. This study confirms that the chamber used for the objective kinetic evaluation of bull-thawed spermatozoa significantly affects the result. These differences could be present also in other species, even if the specific effect on the sperm kinematics should be verified. The Makler chamber seemed to give reliable results with negligible effects on sperm kinematics. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology. Source


Contri A.,University of Teramo | Gloria A.,University of Teramo | Robbe D.,University of Teramo | Valorz C.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Since the mammalian spermatozoa became capable of motion, during the epididymal transit, the spermatozoon swims in a liquid medium and it is completely dependent on the environmental conditions. Some reports have suggested an influence of pH on sperm kinetic characteristics, but no study has objectively described how motility changes in a different environmental pH. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different environmental pHs (5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, and 8.5) on kinetic parameters, sperm viability, mitochondrial activity, and sperm morphology of bull semen immediately and 1. h after dilution. The results showed higher values for sperm motility characteristics, viability, and mitochondrial activity at pH 7 and 7.5. Values of pH lower than 6.5 and higher than 8 resulted in suboptimal motility, with a decrease in most parameters. At pH 8 and 8.5, a discrepancy between viability and total and progressive motility was found, with a significant amount of spermatozoa that were live but immotile. This reduction seemed related to a decrease in mitochondrial activity, possibly due to the increase in pH. The flow cytometric evaluation of sperm viability assessed by calcein AM was very consistent with the amount of spermatozoa with membrane integrity, evaluated in fluorescence by propidium iodide/SYBR-14 stain. Thus, the calcein AM stain could be used as viability stain instead the classic propidium iodide/SYBR-14 stain because this could allow the addiction of other functional stains without a overlapping of the fluorescent signal in the flow cytometer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gloria A.,University of Teramo | Carluccio A.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | Wegher L.,Provincial Breeders Federation of Trento | Robbe D.,University of Teramo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Background: Density gradient centrifugation was reported as a technique of semen preparation in assisted reproductive techniques in humans and animals. This technique was found to be efficient in improving semen quality after harmful techniques such as cryopreservation. Recently a modified technique, single layer centrifugation, was proposed as a technique providing a large amount of high quality spermatozoa, and this treatment was performed before conservation. Single layer centrifugation has been studied prevalently in stallions and in boars, but limited data were available for bulls. Occasionally bulls are known to experience a transient reduction in semen quality, thus techniques that allow improvement in semen quality could be applied in this context. The aim of this study was the evaluation of single layer and double layer centrifugation by the use of iodixanol, compared with conventional centrifugation and non-centrifuged semen, on the sperm characteristics during the cryopreservation process in bulls with normal and poor semen quality. Results: Single layer centrifugation and double layer centrifugation both significantly increased the percentage of normal spermatozoa and decreased the percentage of non-sperm cells in poor quality samples, while both were ineffective in those of normal quality. Sperm characteristics in poor quality samples increased after single layer centrifugation and double layer centrifugation, reaching values similar to those recorded in normal samples, and this trend is maintained after equilibration and after cryopreservation. On the other hand, SLC and DLC resulted in a consistent reduction in the spermatozoa recovered, and this resulted in a reduction of the absolute amount of spermatozoa cryopreserved in the normal samples, without a clear improvement in sperm characteristics in this type of sample. Conclusions: These data suggested that both SLC and DLC could be performed in practice, but their application should be limited to the cases in which the quality of the spermatozoa recovered is more important than the total amount of spermatozoa. © 2016 Gloria et al. Source

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