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Du Y.,Wenzhou Medical College | Lin Y.,Province Station of Plant Protection | Wang Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Qin Y.,NewCon
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2013

The sex pheromone of Phyllonorycter ringoniella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) has been identified to be a blend of (Z)-10-tetradecenyl acetate (Z10-14:OAc) and E4,Z10-tetradecadienyl acetate (E4,Z10-14:OAc) in Japan, Korea, and China. However, the commercial product based on previous results is not attractive enough to be used for monitoring and controlling apple leafminer populations in the field. We re-investigated the attractiveness of the two pheromone components, singly and in blends, in apple orchards in Shangdong and Shaanxi, the main apple-growing provinces in China. Our results revealed that Z10-14:OAc alone was not attractive to P. ringoniella male moths in the field, but E4,Z10-14:OAc alone not only was strongly attractive but caught more males than any of the blends of Z10-14:OAc and E4,Z10-14:OAc tested. The most attractive blend ratios differed slightly for the two locations. No clear dose-response relationship was obtained for the 2:8 blend of Z10-14:OAc and E4,Z10-14:OAc. However, the dose-response field study of E4,Z10-14:OAc alone showed that 1 mg per lure achieved the highest moth catch. These findings differ from the previous report of the best pheromone blend in China. Our data showed that E4,Z10-14:OAc is the major component of the pheromone of P. ringoniella. © 2013 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Gu P.,Wenzhou Medical College | Peng C.-L.,Qianwei County Station of Plant Protection | Li J.,Qianwei County Station of Plant Protection | Feng C.-H.,Province Station of Plant Protection | Du Y.-J.,Wenzhou Medical College
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2013

Field studies using the synthetic sex pheromone of Trichophysetis cretacea, a trinary blend of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc), (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), were performed in Sichuan to determine operational parameters for detection and control, such as dispenser type, blend ratio, dosage, and trap type, height and density. Of three pheromone dispensers tested, grey halo-butyl isoprene elastomeric septa were significantly more effective than polyvinyl chloride capillary tubing or silicone rubber septa. The ratio of the three components in the blend significantly affected moth catch. In the halo-butyl isoprene septa, the most effective ratio was 5 : 2 : 1 Z11-16:OAc:Z11-16:Ald:Z11-16:OH. Sticky wing traps caught significantly more moths than water, noctuid moth or cone funnel traps. The most effective height at which wing traps were hung was 20 cm above the jasmine plants. Optimum trap density was 45 traps per hectare. Addition of volatile jasmine compounds did not increase the attractiveness of the sex pheromone. A dosage of 50 μg Z11-16:OAc per lure was most effective in the autumn weather conditions of Quanwei. These data provide sufficient information to develop effective protocols for using the T. cretacea pheromone to detect and monitor this pest in the jasmine fields. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

Peng C.-L.,Qianwei County Station of Plant Protection | Gu P.,Leshan City Station of Plant Protection | Li J.,Qianwei County Station of Plant Protection | Chen Q.-Y.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

The jasmine bud borer Trichophysetis cretacea (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important agricultural pest of jasmine flowers Jasminum sambac in China. The extract from the pheromone gland of the female moth was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). (Z)-11- hexadecenylacetate (Z1116:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z1116:Ald),and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z1116:OH) were identified as the probable sex pheromone components. The electroantennogram (EAG) bioassay confirmed the results from the chemical analysis. Field bioassays conducted in the late summer and fall in Quanwei, Sichuan, China, showed that the synthetic chemical blend of Z1116:Ac, Z1116:Ald, and Z1116:OH was highly attractive to male T. cretacea moths, and none of the three components was attractive by itself. All three components were necessary and the ratio of the three was critical. The highest number of male moths was captured when the ratio of Z1116:Ac: Z1116:Ald:ZH-16:OH was 10:10:1 at a dosage per lure of 200 g Z1116:Ac. The binary mixture of 200 g Z1116:Ac and 25 g Z1116:OH captured a number of Nymphicula mesorphna (10.3 ± 4.4). The results indicate that traps with synthetic pheromone lures can be used to monitor jasmine bud borer populations in the field and potentially to control this pest. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

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