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Bolzano, Italy

Rizzo C.,National Center for Epidemiology Surveillance and Health Promotion | Alfonsi V.,National Center for Epidemiology Surveillance and Health Promotion | Bruni R.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Busani L.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 15 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Since January 2013, an unusual increase in hepatitis A cases has been detected in northern Italy. A total number of 352 cases were reported to the integrated surveillance system between January and the end of May 2013 and this represents a 70% increase compared to the same period of the previous year. The outbreak is ongoing and the public health authorities are continuing their investigations to establish the transmission vehicle and to control the outbreak.

Montano-Remacha C.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Montano-Remacha C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Ricotta L.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Ricotta L.,University of Bologna | And 22 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Between January and May 2013 a hepatitis A (HA) incidence increase was detected in Italy, signalling an outbreak. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted to identify the source of infection. A case was defined as a resident of any of five regions (Apulia, autonomous province of Bolzano, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli Venezia-Giulia and autonomous province of Trento), who had symptom onset between 1 January and 31 May2013 as well a positive test for anti-HA virus IgM. We compared each case with four age-and neighbourhood-matched controls. Overall 119 cases and 419 controls were enrolled. Berries were found as the main risk factor for HA (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj): 4.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-7.0) followed by raw seafood (ORadj: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.2-6.8; PAF: 26%). Sequencing the virion protein (VP)1-2a region from 24 cases yielded a common sequence (GenBank number: KF182323). The same sequence was amplified from frozen mixed berries consumed by some cases as well as from isolates from Dutch and German HA patients, who had visited some of the affected Italian provinces during the outbreak. These findings suggested berries as the main source of the Italian outbreak. Control measures included voluntary recall of the confirmed frozen mixed berry batches and a trace-back investigation was initiated. The Ministry of Health website recommends frozen berries to be cooked for two minutes before eating. © 2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Corsini A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Iannacone J.P.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Ronchetti F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Salvini R.,University of Siena | And 5 more authors.
Landslide Science and Practice: Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation | Year: 2013

The Trafoi rockslide is very similar to the Val Pola landslide before it evolved in a catastrophic rock avalanche in 1987. The Trafoi rockslide was recognized and mapped on the basis of geomorphic evidences such as double crests and detachment niches/scarps as well as geologic proxies such as gravitational offset of distinctive bedrock levels and trenching and fracturing of rock masses. In order to assess the activity status of the landslide, not discernible from field evidences only, periodic GPS monitoring on 11 benchmarks was started in 2007 and continued until 2010 with static-rapid measurements repeated three to four times per year. Results have shown that portions of the rockslide move at some cm/year rate. This highlights the potential for a possible evolution of the mass movement and the necessity of hazard scenarios mapping and run-out modelling. In order to define volume of possible detachments scenarios, digital aerial photointerpretation were used together with High Resolution DEM and information collected from geomechanical field survey. The Trafoi rockslide is among the test sites of the ongoing European project "Monitor II", that is proposing the usage of hot spots in the process domain as a practical mean to describe hazard scenarios. Following such approach, simplified hazard and risk scenarios were schematized on the basis of the data collected with monitoring and analysis of ongoing and potential slope instability processes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

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