Diyarbakır, Turkey
Diyarbakır, Turkey

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Heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples from the Tigris River were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The highest concentrations of metals were found at the first site due to metallic wastewater discharges from copper mine plant. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF). The CF values for Co, Cu and Zn were >6 in sediments of the first site, which denotes a very high contamination by these metals. The PLIs indicated that all sites except the first site were moderately polluted. Cu, Co, Zn and Pb had the highest Igeo values, respectively. The mean EF values for all metals studied except Cr and Mn were >1.5 in the sediments of the Tigris River, suggesting anthropogenic impact on the metal levels in the river. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb are likely to result in harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms which are expected to occur frequently based on the comparison with sediment quality guidelines. PCA/FA and cluster analysis suggest that As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn are derived from the anthropogenic sources, particularly metallic discharges of the copper mine plant. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bekleyen A.,Dicle University | Gokot B.,Dicle University | Varol M.,Province Control Laboratory
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2011

A total of 175 morphospecies belonging to 47 genera of the monogonont Rotifera are reported here, representing the highest rotifer biodiversity recorded from any body of water in Turkey; 34 of these species are new records for the Turkish fauna. The genera Donneria De Smet, Octotrocha Thorpe and Stephanoceros Ehrenberg are recorded for the first time in Turkey. The eastern Oriental taxon Brachionus murphyi Sudzuki and the tropicopolitan Trichocerca braziliensis (Murray) are new records for both the Palearctic region and western Asia. Additionally, the Palearctic European species Cephalodella cf. ungulata Fischer and Ahlrichs and Lecane margalefi De Manuel are recorded for the first time in Asia and for the second time outside of their type localities. The Tigris River is the third locality reported for the distribution of Donneria sudzukii (Donner). All observed species were members of 23 families with the majority (72%) of the examined fauna belonging to the following families: Notommatidae (33 species) > Lecanidae (30 species) > Brachionidae (25 species) > Dicranophoridae (14 species) > Lepadellidae (13 species) > Trichocercidae (11 species). Littoral rotifers made a significant contribution to the overall species diversity observed. Due to the strategic geographic position of Turkey, it is important to conduct species inventories in different localities of the country to fill distributional gaps for many rotifer species. The rotiferan species richness found in the study region and the biogeographically interesting elements of this river are remarkable and are discussed here. Additionally, this report represents the most up-to-date review of Turkish rotifers. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Varol M.,Province Control Laboratory | Gokot B.,Dicle University | Bekleyen A.,Dicle University | Sen B.,Firat University
Catena | Year: 2012

Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA), were applied to evaluate the temporal/spatial variations of water quality data sets for Kralkizi, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin, obtained during 1. year (2008-2009) of monitoring. This study highlights the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation and interpretation of complex water quality data sets, apportionment of pollution sources/factors and the design of a monitoring network for the effective management of water resources. Hierarchical CA grouped 12. months into two clusters (wet and dry seasons) and classified ten monitoring sites into four clusters based on similarities in the water quality characteristics. PCA/FA identified five factors in the data structure that explained 80% of the total variance of the data set. The PCA/FA grouped the selected parameters according to common features to help evaluate the influence of each group on the overall variation in water quality. Discriminant analysis showed better results for data reduction and pattern recognition during both spatial and temporal analysis. Temporal DA revealed nine parameters (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, chloride and calcium), affording 100% correct assignations. Spatial DA revealed eight parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen, orthophosphate phosphorus, sodium and total suspended solids), affording 92.5% correct assignations. Therefore, DA allowed a reduction in the dimensionality of the large data set and indicated a few significant parameters responsible for large variations in water quality that could reduce the number of sampling parameters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Varol M.,Province Control Laboratory | Sen B.,Firat University
Catena | Year: 2012

The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in both surface water and sediment samples from the upper Tigris River were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. All metal concentrations in water samples, except Cu, were lower than the maximum permitted concentration for the protection of aquatic life. TN, TP and metal concentrations in sediment samples from the first three sites situated downstream of Ergani Copper Mine Plant were much higher than those at other sites. There was a significant decrease in the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment from the last site downstream of the Dicle Dam. Sediment pollution assessment was undertaken using enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). The sediments of sites downstream of the copper mine plant showed significant enrichment with Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn, indicating metallic discharges from the Ergani Copper Mine Plant. The I geo values revealed that Cu (5.09), Co (4.26) and Zn (3.18) were significantly accumulated in the study area. Based on the comparison with sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn at sites downstream of the copper mine plant are likely to result in harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly metallic discharges of the copper mine plant. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Varol M.,Province Control Laboratory | Gokot B.,Dicle University | Bekleyen A.,Dicle University | Sen B.,Firat University
River Research and Applications | Year: 2012

The Tigris is one of the most important transboundary rivers in western Asia and originates in the Toros mountains of the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied for the evaluation of temporal/spatial variations and the interpretation of a water quality data set for the Tigris River, which was obtained during 1year of monitoring. This study presents the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation and interpretation of complex water quality data sets and apportionment of pollution sources/factors to obtain better information about water quality and the design of a monitoring network for the effective management of water resources. Hierarchical CA grouped 12months into two periods (the first and second periods) and classified seven monitoring sites into three groups, that is, less polluted sites, medium polluted sites and highly polluted sites, based on similarities in the water quality characteristics. PCA/FA identified five factors in the data structure, which explained 77.5% of the total variance of the data set. This allowed us to group the selected parameters according to common features and to evaluate the influence of each group on the overall variation in water quality. Varifactors obtained from the factor analysis indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variation were mainly related to soluble salts (natural), organic pollution and nutrients (anthropogenic). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Gokmen M.,Province Control Laboratory | Tekinsen K.K.,Selcuk University | Gurbuz U.,Selcuk University
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi | Year: 2010

Enterobacter sakazakii has been caused foodborne illnesses through consumption of a variety of foods such as milk powder, cheese, sausage, particularly infant foods. In this study, the presence of E. sakazakii were investigated in 60 milk powder, 50 whey powder and 50 white cheese. ISO/TS 22964 (IDF/RM 210) method was used for detection E. sakazakii. E. sakazakii was identified from milk powder 5% (3/60), white cheese 4% (2/50). E. sakazakii was not detected in whey powder. According to Commission Regulation (EC) and Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criteria Communique E. sakazakii must not present in infant formulae, formulae for special medical purposes and follow-on formulae. Also in many countries, E. sakazakii infections associated with most of the milk-based products that have been reported. In conclusion, the results indicate that milk powder and white cheese produced some dairy plants in Konya presents a risk in terms of human health and the necessary precaution will have to be taken to carry out effective sanitary practices in the plants.


Tekeli Y.,Mustafa Kemal University | Zengin G.,Selcuk University | Aktumsek A.,Selcuk University | Mehmet S.,Selcuk University | Torlak E.,Province Control Laboratory
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae) have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata) possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.


Bekleyen A.,Dicle University | Varol M.,Province Control Laboratory | Gokot B.,Dicle University
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2011

We report the first record of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester in Kralkizi Dam Lake, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The medusa was found only in August, 2008 when average surface water temperatures were 26. 9°C. © 2011 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Torlak E.,Province Control Laboratory | Nizamlioglu M.,Selcuk University
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting | Year: 2011

In this study, antimicrobial efficacy of polypropylene (PP) films coated with chitosan solutions (2% wt/v) and chitosan solutions enriched with essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were evaluated on Kashar cheese slices. Oregano and clove oils were incorporated into film solutions at 1% (v/v). Inoculated cheese samples were wrapped with films and stored at 4 °C for 14 days. Antimicrobial effectiveness of films against each of three pathogens was measured by plate counts performed on 1, 7, and 14 days of storage. It was found that the antimicrobial effectiveness of all film types against three pathogens were statistically significant (p < 0.05), with films containing oregano oil showed greater antimicrobial effect on pathogens than films containing clove oil. Results suggest that chitosan is an ideal biopolymer for coating onto PP films, and EOs have the potential to be used in antimicrobial coated plastic film prepared from biopolymers. © The Author(s) 2011.


PubMed | Province Control Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Journal of hazardous materials | Year: 2011

Heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples from the Tigris River were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The highest concentrations of metals were found at the first site due to metallic wastewater discharges from copper mine plant. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF). The CF values for Co, Cu and Zn were >6 in sediments of the first site, which denotes a very high contamination by these metals. The PLIs indicated that all sites except the first site were moderately polluted. Cu, Co, Zn and Pb had the highest Igeo values, respectively. The mean EF values for all metals studied except Cr and Mn were >1.5 in the sediments of the Tigris River, suggesting anthropogenic impact on the metal levels in the river. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb are likely to result in harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms which are expected to occur frequently based on the comparison with sediment quality guidelines. PCA/FA and cluster analysis suggest that As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn are derived from the anthropogenic sources, particularly metallic discharges of the copper mine plant.

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