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Wijtten P.J.A.,Provimi Research Center | Meulen J.V.D.,Wageningen University | Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Under commercial conditions, weaning of piglets is associated with social, environmental and dietary stress. Consequently, small-intestinal barrier and absorptive functions deteriorate within a short time after weaning. Most studies that have assessed small-intestinal permeability in pigs after weaning used either Ussing chambers or orally administered marker probes. Paracellular barrier function and active absorption decrease when pigs are weaned at 3 weeks of age or earlier. However, when weaned at 4 weeks of age or later, the barrier function is less affected, and active absorption is not affected or is increased. Weaning stress is a critical factor in relation to the compromised paracellular barrier function after weaning. Adequate feed intake levels after weaning prevent the loss of the intestinal barrier function. Transcellular transport of macromolecules and passive transcellular absorption decrease after weaning. This may reflect a natural intestinal maturation process that is enhanced by the weaning process and prevents the pig from an antigen overload. It seems that passive and active absorption after weaning adapt accurately to the new environment when pigs are weaned after 3 weeks of age. However, when weaned at 3 weeks of age or earlier, the decrease in active absorption indicates that pigs are unable to sufficiently adapt to the new environment. To improve weaning strategies, future studies should distinguish whether the effect of feed intake on barrier function can be directed to a lack of a specific nutrient, i.e. energy or protein. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Dijkstra J.,Wageningen University | van Zijderveld S.M.,Provimi Research Center | Apajalahti J.A.,Alimetrics | Bannink A.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with dairy cattle with a total of 10 dietary treatments and 50 observations were used. Dietary treatments included supplementation with calcium fumarate, diallyldisulfide, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, extruded linseed, linseed oil and yucca powder. Methane was measured using open circuit indirect respiration calorimetry chambers and expressed as g/kg dry matter (DM) intake. Milk FA were analyzed by gas chromatography and individual FA expressed as a fraction of total FA. To determine relationships between milk FA profile and CH4 production, univariate mixed model regression techniques were applied including a random experiment effect. A multivariate model was developed using a stepwise procedure with selection of FA based on the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion. Dry matter intake was 17.7±1.83kg/day, milk production was 27.0±4.64kg/day, and methane production was 21.5±1.69g/kgDM. Milk C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C14:0 iso, C15:0 iso, C16:0 and C17:0 anteiso were positively related (P<0.05) to CH4 (g/kg DM intake), whereas C17:0 iso, cis-9 C17:1, cis-9 C18:1, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, cis-12 C18:1 and cis-14+trans-16 C18:1 were negatively related (P<0.05) to CH4. Multivariate analysis resulted in the equation: CH4 (g/kg DM)=24.6±1.28+8.74±3.581×C17:0 anteiso-1.97±0.432×trans-10+11 C18:1-9.09±1.444×cis-11 C18:1+5.07±1.937×cis-13 C18:1 (individual FA in g/100g FA; R2=0.73 after correction for experiment effect). This confirms the expected positive relationship between CH4 and C14:0 iso and C15:0 iso in milk FA, as well as the negative relationship between CH4 and various trans-intermediates, particularly trans-10+11 C18:1. However, in contrast with expectations, C15:0 and C17:0 were not related to CH4 production. Milk FA profiles can predict CH4 production in dairy cattle.This paper is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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