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Francis G.A.,Providence Heart and Lung Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2010

Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with coronary artery disease risk in large epidemiologic studies. This rule, however, has many exceptions in individual patients, and evidence suggests that other facets of high-density lipoprotein particle biology not captured by measuring HDL-C levels are responsible for HDL's effects in vivo. This article reviews the evidence for the protective nature of HDL, current evidence from animal and human studies regarding HDL-based therapies, the major steps in HDL particle formation and metabolism, alterations leading to dysfunctional HDL in diabetes and inflammatory states, and potential alternatives to HDL-C to measure HDL function and predict its protective value clinically. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Providence Heart and Lung Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2010

The wall of hollow organs of vertebrates is a unique structure able to generate active tension and maintain a nearly constant passive stiffness over a large volume range. These properties are predominantly attributable to the smooth muscle cells that line the organ wall. Although smooth muscle is known to possess plasticity (i.e., the ability to adapt to large changes in cell length through structural remodeling of contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton), the detailed structural basis for the plasticity is largely unknown. Dense bodies, one of the most prominent structures in smooth muscle cells, have been regarded as the anchoring sites for actin filaments, similar to the Z-disks in striated muscle. Here, we show that the dense bodies and intermediate filaments formed cable-like structures inside airway smooth muscle cells and were able to adjust the cable length according to cell length and tension. Stretching the muscle cell bundle in the relaxed state caused the cables to straighten, indicating that these intracellular structures were connected to the extracellular matrix and could support passive tension. These plastic structures may be responsible for the ability of smooth muscle to maintain a nearly constant tensile stiffness over a large length range. The finding suggests that the structural plasticity of hollow organs may originate from the dense-body cables within the smooth muscle cells.


PubMed | Providence Heart and Lung Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2010

Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with coronary artery disease risk in large epidemiologic studies. This rule, however, has many exceptions in individual patients, and evidence suggests that other facets of high-density lipoprotein particle biology not captured by measuring HDL-C levels are responsible for HDLs effects in vivo. This article reviews the evidence for the protective nature of HDL, current evidence from animal and human studies regarding HDL-based therapies, the major steps in HDL particle formation and metabolism, alterations leading to dysfunctional HDL in diabetes and inflammatory states, and potential alternatives to HDL-C to measure HDL function and predict its protective value clinically.

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