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O'Kennedy N.,Provexis PLC | O'Kennedy N.,University of Aberdeen | Raederstorff D.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd | Duttaroy A.K.,University of Oslo
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Potent antiplatelet factors were identified in water-soluble tomato extract (Fruitflow®), which significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. Human volunteer studies demonstrated the potency and bioavailability of active compounds in Fruitflow®. Fruitflow® became the first product in Europe to obtain an approved, proprietary health claim under Article 13(5) of the European Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Fruitflow® is now commercially available in different countries worldwide. In addition to its reduction in platelet reactivity, Fruitflow® contains anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme and anti-inflammatory factors, making it an effective and natural cardio-protective functional food. © 2016 The Author(s)


PubMed | Provexis Plc, Bioinformatics and Statistics Scotland BioSS and University of Oslo
Type: | Journal: European journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Increasing numbers of food ingredients are gaining acknowledgement, via regulated health claims, of benefits to human health. One such is a water-soluble tomato extract, Fruitflow (FF), a dietary antiplatelet. We examined relative platelet responses to FF and to 75mg aspirin (ASA) in healthy subjects.A total of 47 healthy subjects completed a double-blinded randomised controlled trial following a crossover design. Acute and 7-day treatments with 75mg ASA were compared with control with and without concomitant FF, over a 5-h timecourse. Platelet aggregation response agonist, platelet thromboxane A2 release, plasma clotting times and time to form a primary haemostatic clot (PFA-100 closure time, TTC) were measured.Administration of all treatments lowered platelet function and thromboxane A2 generation, and extended the TTC, relative to baseline (P<0.001) and to control (P<0.001). Plasma clotting times were not affected. A single 75mg dose of ASA showed approximately equal efficacy to a dose of FF, whereas daily 75mg ASA was approximately three times as effective after 7 days (P=0.002). Platelet responses were heterogenous with distinct weak and strong responder groups. Weak ASA responders retained a functional platelet response to collagen agonist and were responsive to FF. Concomitant FF and ASA did not lead to significant additive effects.The suppression of platelet function observed after consuming FF is approximately one-third that of daily 75mg ASA. The reversible action of FF renders it less likely to overextend the time to form a primary haemostatic clot than ASA, an important safety consideration for primary prevention.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 23 November 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.222.


Zhang X.,University of Aberdeen | Zhang X.,Provexis PLC | Mcgeoch S.C.,Royal Infirmary | Megson I.L.,University of the Highlands and Islands | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Scope: Inflammatory status can increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events linked to platelet activity and involvement of microparticles (MP) released from platelets (PMP), leukocytes (LMP), and monocytes (MMP). These MP carry host cell-derived antigens that may act as markers of metabolic health. Subjects newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are offered appropriate standard dietary advice (SDA) but this may not be optimal as specific inclusion of other nutrients, such as oats, may add benefit. The effectiveness of such interventions can be tested by examination of MP activation markers. Methods and results: Subjects (n = 22) with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized cross-over trial involving 8 wk interventions with either an oat-enriched diet (OAT) or following reinforced SDA. Responses were also compared with preintervention habitual (HAB) intake. OAT reduced the concentrations and proportions of fibrinogen- and tissue factor-related PMP and MMP_11b. The main effect of SDA was to reduce fibrinogen-activated PMP. Regardless of chronic intake, a healthy test meal led to postprandial declines in total PMP as well as tissue factor-, fibrinogen-, and P-selectin-positive PMP. Conclusion: OAT improved risk factors assessed by MP status, even in subjects with type 2 diabetes already well-controlled by diet and life-style alone. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Roberts C.L.,University of Liverpool | Keita A.V.,Linköping University | Parsons B.N.,University of Liverpool | Prorok-Hamon M.,University of Liverpool | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Dietary fibres may have prebiotic effects mediated by promotion of beneficial bacteria. This study explores the possibility that soluble plant fibre may also improve health by inhibiting epithelial adhesion and translocation by pathogenic bacteria. We have focussed on soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) from plantain bananas (Musa spp.) which previous studies showed to be particularly effective at blocking Escherichia coli epithelial adherence. In vitro and ex vivo studies assessed the ability of plantain NSP to inhibit epithelial cell adhesion and invasion of various bacterial pathogens, and to inhibit their translocation through microfold (M)-cells and human Peyer's patches mounted in Ussing chambers. Plantain NSP showed dose-related inhibition of epithelial adhesion and M-cell translocation by a range of pathogens. At 5. mg/ml, a concentration readily achievable in the gut lumen, plantain NSP inhibited adhesion to Caco2 cells by Salmonella Typhimurium (85.0±8.2%, P<.01), Shigella sonnei (46.6±29.3%, P<.01), enterotoxigenic E.coli (56.1±23.7%, P<.05) and Clostridium difficile (67.6±12.3%, P<.001), but did not inhibit adhesion by enteropathogenic E.coli. Plantain NSP also inhibited invasion of Caco2 cells by S. Typhimurium (80.2 ± 9.7%) and Sh. sonnei (46.7±13.4%); P<.01. Plantain NSP, 5. mg/ml, also inhibited translocation of S. Typhimurium and Sh. sonnei across M-cells by 73.3±5.2% and 46.4±7.7% respectively (P<.05). Similarly, S. Typhimurium translocation across Peyer's patches was reduced 65.9±8.1% by plantain NSP (P<.01). Soluble plantain fibre can block epithelial adhesion and M-cell translocation of intestinal pathogens. This represents an important novel mechanism by which soluble dietary fibres can promote intestinal health and prevent infective diarrhoea. © 2013.


Roberts C.L.,University of Liverpool | Keita A.V.,Linköping University | Duncan S.H.,University of Aberdeen | O'Kennedy N.,Provexis Plc | And 3 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2010

Background: Crohn's disease is common in developed nations where the typical diet is low in fibre and high in processed food. Primary lesions overlie Peyer's patches and colonic lymphoid follicles where bacterial invasion through M-cells occurs. We have assessed the effect of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) and food emulsifiers on translocation of Escherichia coli across M-cells. Methods: To assess effects of soluble plant fibres and food emulsifiers on translocation of mucosa-associated E coli isolates from Crohn's disease patients and from non-Crohn's controls, we used M-cell monolayers, generated by co-culture of Caco2-cl1 and Raji B cells, and human Peyer's patches mounted in Ussing chambers. Results E coli translocation increased across M-cells compared to parent Caco2-cl1 monocultures; 15.8-fold (IQR 6.2-32.0) for Crohn's disease E coli (N=8) and 6.7-fold (IQR 3.7-21.0) for control isolates (N=5). Electron microscopy confirmed E coli within M-cells. Plantain and broccoli NSP markedly reduced E coli translocation across M-cells at 5 mg/ml (range 45.3-82.6% inhibition, p<0.01); apple and leek NSP had no significant effect. Polysorbate-80, 0.01% vol/vol, increased E coli translocation through Caco2-cl1 monolayers 59-fold (p<0.05) and, at higher concentrations, increased translocation across M-cells. Similarly, E coli translocation across human Peyer's patches was reduced 45±7% by soluble plantain NSP (5 mg/ml) and increased 2-fold by polysorbate-80 (0.1% vol/vol). Conclusions: Translocation of E coli across M-cells is reduced by soluble plant fibres, particularly plantain and broccoli, but increased by the emulsifier Polysorbate-80. These effects occur at relevant concentrations and may contribute to the impact of dietary factors on Crohn's disease pathogenesis.


Parsons B.N.,University of Liverpool | Wigley P.,University of Liverpool | Simpson H.L.,University of Liverpool | Williams J.M.,University of Liverpool | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. © 2014 Parsons et al.


PubMed | Provexis plc, University of Liverpool, University of Edinburgh, University of East Anglia and Linköping University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis.


De Roos B.,University of Aberdeen | Zhang X.,Provexis Plc | Rodriguez Gutierrez G.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Wood S.,University of Aberdeen | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Purpose: Platelets play a key role in haemostasis and wound healing, contributing to formation of vascular plugs. They are also involved in formation of atherosclerosic plaques. Some traditional diets, like the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Components in these diets may have anti-platelet functions contributing to their health benefits. Methods: We studied the effects of alperujo extract, an olive oil production waste product containing the majority of polyphenols found in olive fruits, through measurement of effects on platelet aggregation and activation in isolated human platelets, and through identification of changes in the platelet proteome. Results: Alperujo extract (40 mg/L) significantly decreased in vitro ADP- (p = 0.002) and TRAP- (p = 0.02) induced platelet activation as measured by the flow cytometry using the antibody for p-selectin (CD62p), but it did not affect the conformation of the fibrinogen receptor as measured by flow cytometry using the antibodies for anti-fibrinogen, CD42a and CD42b. Alperujo extract (100 mg/L) inhibited both collagen- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation by 5% (p < 0.05), and a combination of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were, at least partly, responsible for this effect. Proteomic analysis identified nine proteins that were differentially regulated by the alperujo extract upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation. These proteins represent important mechanisms that may underlie the anti-platelet effects of this extract: regulation of platelet structure and aggregation, coagulation and apoptosis, and signalling by integrin αIIb/β3. Conclusions: Alperujo extract may protect against platelet activation, platelet adhesion and possibly have anti-inflammatory properties. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Ostertag L.M.,University of Aberdeen | O'Kennedy N.,Provexis plc | Horgan G.W.,Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | Kroon P.A.,UK Institute of Food Research | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Bioactive polyphenols from fruits, vegetables, and beverages have anti-platelet effects and may thus affect the development of cardiovascular disease. We screened the effects of 26 low molecular weight phenolic compounds on two in vitro measures of human platelet function. Methods and results: After platelets had been incubated with one of 26 low molecular weight phenolic compounds in vitro, collagen-induced human platelet aggregation and in vitro TRAP-induced P-selectin expression (as marker of platelet activation) were assessed. Incubation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers with 100μmol/L hippuric acid, pyrogallol, catechol, or resorcinol significantly inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation (all p<0.05; n≥15). Incubation of whole blood with concentrations of 100μmol/L salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl glycine, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, and catechol significantly inhibited TRAP-induced surface P-selectin expression (all p<0.05; n=10). Incubation with lower concentrations of phenolics affected neither platelet aggregation nor activation. Conclusion: As concentrations of 100μmol/L are unlikely to be reached in the circulation, it is doubtful whether consumption of dietary phenolics in nutritionally attainable amounts plays a major role in inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation in humans. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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