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Shenzhen, China

Zi J.,China Agricultural University | Zi J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Zhang J.,China Agricultural University | Zhang J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | And 9 more authors.

The plant embryo is the germination center of the seed. How an embryo forms during seed maturation remains unclear, especially in the case of monocotyledonous plants. Generally, the complex processes of embryogenesis result from the action of a coordinated network of genes. Thus, a large-scale survey of changes in protein abundance during embryogenesis is an effective approach to study the molecular events of embryogenesis. In this study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was applied to separate rice embryo proteins collected during the three phases of embryogenesis: 6 days after pollination (DAP), 12 DAP, and 18 DAP. We then employed matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry(MALDI TOF/TOF MS) to identify the phase-dependent differential 2DE spots. A total of 66 spots were discovered to be regulated during embryogenesis, and of these spots, 53 spots were identified. These proteins were further categorized into several functional classes, including storage, embryo development, stress response, glycolysis, and protein metabolism. Intriguingly, the major differential spots originated from three globulins. We further examined the possible mechanism underlying the globulins' multiple forms using Western blotting, proteolysis, and blue native gel electrophoresis techniques and found that the multiple forms of globulins were produced as a result of enhanced proteolysis during embryogenesis, indicating that these globulin forms may serve as chaperone proteins participating in the formation of multiple protein complexes during embryogenesis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Zi J.,Proteomics Division | Zi J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang J.,China Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.

Embryogenesis is the initial step in a plant's life, and the molecular changes that occur during embryonic development are largely unknown. To explore the relevant molecular events, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with the shotgun proteomics technique (iTRAQ/Shotgun) to study the proteomic changes of rice embryos during embryogenesis. For the first time, a total of 2 165 unique proteins were identified in rice embryos, and the abundances of 867 proteins were actively changed based on the statistical evaluation of the quantitative MS/MS signals. The quantitative data were then confirmed using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and were also supported by our previous study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2 DE). Using the proteome at 6 days after pollination (DAP) as a reference, cluster analysis of these differential proteins throughout rice embryogenesis revealed that 25% were up-regulated and 75% were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis implicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were functionally categorized as stress responsive, mainly including heat shock-, lipid transfer-, and reactive oxygen species-related proteins. The stress-responsive proteins were thus postulated to play an important role during seed maturation. © 2013 Zi et al. Source

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