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Wendeler M.,MedImmune LLC | Grinberg L.,Protein Discovery | Wang X.,MedImmune LLC | Dawson P.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Baca M.,Protein Discovery
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014

The conjugation of biomolecules by chemoselective oxime ligation is of great interest for the site-specific modification of proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. These conjugations proceed optimally at a reaction pH of 4-5, but some biomolecules are not soluble or stable under these conditions. Aniline can be used as a nucleophilic catalyst to enhance the rate of oxime formation, but even in its presence, the reaction rate at neutral pH can be slower than desired, particularly at low reagent concentrations and/or temperature. Recently, alternative catalysts with improved properties were reported, including anthranilic acid derivatives for small molecule ligations, as well as m-phenylenediamine at high concentrations for protein conjugations. Here, we report that p-substituted anilines containing an electron-donating ring substituent are superior catalysts of oxime-based conjugations at pH 7. One such catalyst, p-phenylenediamine, was studied in greater detail. This catalyst was highly effective at neutral pH, even at the low concentration of 2 mM. In a model oxime ligation using aminooxy-functionalized PEG, catalysis at pH 7 resulted in a 120-fold faster rate of protein PEGylation as compared to an uncatalyzed reaction, and 19-fold faster than the equivalent aniline-catalyzed reaction. p-Phenylenediamine (10 mM) was also an effective catalyst under acidic conditions and was more efficient than aniline throughout the pH range 4-7. This catalyst allows efficient oxime bioconjugations to proceed under mild conditions and low micromolar concentrations, as demonstrated by the PEGylation of a small protein. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Elvin J.G.,Protein Discovery | Couston R.G.,University of Strathclyde | Van Der Walle C.F.,University of Strathclyde
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2013

Antibodies are well established in mainstream clinical practice and present an exciting area for collaborative research and development in industry and academia alike. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current market and an outlook to 2015, focussing on whole antibody molecules while acknowledging the next generation scaffolds containing variable fragments. The market will be discussed in the context of disease targets, particularly in the areas of oncology and immune disorders which generate the greatest revenue by a wide margin. Emerging targets include central nervous system disorders which will also stimulate new delivery strategies. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a better understanding of bioprocessing is required in order to optimize the steps involved in the preparation of a protein prior to formulation. The latter is outside the scope of this review and nor is it our intention to discuss protein delivery and pharmacokinetics. The challenges that lie ahead include the discovery of new disease targets and the development of robust bioprocessing operations. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Schiele F.,Bayer AG | Ayaz P.,Protein Discovery | Fernandez-Montalvan A.,Bayer AG
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

There is an increasing demand for assay technologies that enable accurate, cost-effective, and high-throughput measurements of drug-target association and dissociation rates. Here we introduce a universal homogeneous kinetic probe competition assay (kPCA) that meets these requirements. The time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (TR-FRET) procedure combines the versatility of radioligand binding assays with the advantages of homogeneous nonradioactive techniques while approaching the time resolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and related biosensors. We show application of kPCA for three important target classes: enzymes, protein-protein interactions, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is capable of supporting early stages of drug discovery with large amounts of kinetic information. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Abbott W.M.,Astrazeneca | Damschroder M.M.,Protein Discovery | Lowe D.C.,Protein Discovery
Immunology | Year: 2014

A number of different methods are commonly used to map the fine details of the interaction between an antigen and an antibody. Undoubtedly the method that is now most commonly used to give details at the level of individual amino acids and atoms is X-ray crystallography. The feasibility of undertaking crystallographic studies has increased over recent years through the introduction of automation, miniaturization and high throughput processes. However, this still requires a high level of sophistication and expense and cannot be used when the antigen is not amenable to crystallization. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a similar level of detail to crystallography but the technical hurdles are even higher such that it is rarely used in this context. Mutagenesis of either antigen or antibody offers the potential to give information at the amino acid level but suffers from the uncertainty of not knowing whether an effect is direct or indirect due to an effect on the folding of a protein. Other methods such as hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry and the use of short peptides coupled with ELISA-based approaches tend to give mapping information over a peptide region rather than at the level of individual amino acids. It is quite common to use more than one method because of the limitations and even with a crystal structure it can be useful to use mutagenesis to tease apart the contribution of individual amino acids to binding affinity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Ravn P.,Protein Discovery
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

A large antibody fragment library (>10 12) has been generated in ribosome display format. The library was constructed in a two-step process. First, variable (V) genes were isolated from human B cells from a panel of 14 donors and cloned into designated ribosome display vectors to create a gene bank. Second, RD-VH and RD-VL genes from individual immunoglobulin families were combined in vitro resulting in 112 scFv ribosome display sub-libraries. These were subsequently pooled to form a master library. This library was used to isolate a panel of antibodies to the IL4 receptor by three rounds of selections on a soluble target. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Thom G.,Protein Discovery | Minter R.,Protein Discovery
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

In this case study, we describe the use of in vitro protein evolution with ribosome display to improve the potency of a human interleukin-13-neutralising antibody by a factor of over 200-fold and derive a therapeutic candidate, CAT-354, for the treatment of asthma. A combination of directed and random mutagenesis enabled the identification of highly potent neutralising antibodies and highlighted the advantage of the ribosome display protein evolution approach in identifying beneficial mutations across the entire sequence space. This chapter describes in detail the process followed to achieve a successful in vitro affinity maturation outcome using ribosome display technology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Douthwaite J.A.,Protein Discovery
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Ribosome display is a powerful in vitro technology for the selection and directed evolution of proteins. Cell-free translation is central to the ribosome display process and is performed in such a way that the ribosome provides the link between genotype and phenotype that allows genes encoding proteins with desired properties to be identified by selection. Prokaryotic cell-free translation reagents, based initially on E. coli cell extracts and more recently containing purified and recombinant factors, have dominated the ribosome display literature. Eukaryotic cell extracts are also suitable for ribosome display; however, protocols for prokaryotic ribosome display are not directly transferable to the use of eukaryotic cell extracts. This chapter describes an optimised methodology for the use of rabbit reticulocyte lysate for ribosome display selections. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Buchanan A.,Protein Discovery
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The opportunity to enhance protein stability has a number of potential benefits for biological therapeutics -for example extending in vivo half-life, enabling a longer shelf life, reducing the propensity to aggregate, or enabling soluble expression. Engineering protein stability has been attempted empirically, rationally, and using directed evolution based on phage display. Ribosome display is a powerful in vitro technology for the selection and directed evolution of proteins. Ribosome display is typically used for the generation of high-affinity proteins and peptides. This method extends the utility of ribosome display to selecting for stability, defined as the propensity of a molecule to exist in its folded and active state. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Smith A.J.,Protein Discovery
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2015

Antibody drugs have become an increasingly significant component of the therapeutic landscape. Their success has been driven by some of their unique properties, in particular their very high specificity and selectivity, in contrast to the off-target liabilities of small molecules (SMs). Antibodies can bring additional functionality to the table with their ability to interact with the immune system, and this can be further manipulated with advances in antibody engineering. This review summarizes what antibody therapeutics have achieved to date and what opportunities and challenges lie ahead. The target landscape for large molecules (LMs) versus SMs and some of the challenges for antibody drug development are discussed. Effective penetration of membrane barriers and intracellular targeting is one challenge, particularly across the highly resistant blood-brain barrier. The expanding pipeline of antibody-drug conjugates offers the potential to combine SM and LM modalities in a variety of creative ways, and antibodies also offer exciting potential to build bi- and multispecific molecules. The ability to pursue more challenging targets can also be further exploited but highlights the need for earlier screening in functional cell-based assays. I discuss how this might be addressed given the practical constraints imposed by high-throughput screening sample type and process differences in antibody primary screening. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.


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