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PubMed | Biostatistics Group, HunterLab Inc., Protein Analytical Chemistry. and Genentech
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology | Year: 2016

Color is an important quality attribute for biotherapeutics. In the biotechnology industry, a visual method is most commonly utilized for color characterization of liquid drug protein solutions. The color testing method is used for both batch release and on stability testing for quality control. Using that method, an analyst visually determines the color of the sample by choosing the closest matching European Pharmacopeia reference color solution. The requirement to judge the best match makes it a subjective method. Furthermore, the visual method does not capture data on hue or chroma that would allow for improved product characterization and the ability to detect subtle differences between samples. To overcome these challenges, we describe a quantitative method for color determination that greatly reduces the variability in measuring color and allows for a more precise understanding of color differences. Following color industry standards established by International Commission on Illumination, this method converts a protein solutions visible absorption spectra to L*a*b* color space. Color matching is achieved within the L*a*b* color space, a practice that is already widely used in other industries. The work performed here is to facilitate the adoption and transition for the traditional visual assessment method to a quantitative spectral method. We describe here the algorithm used such that the quantitative spectral method correlates with the currently used visual method. In addition, we provide the L*a*b* values for the European Pharmacopeia reference color solutions required for the quantitative method. We have determined these L*a*b* values by gravimetrically preparing and measuring multiple lots of the reference color solutions. We demonstrate that the visual assessment and the quantitative spectral method are comparable using both low- and high-concentration antibody solutions and solutions with varying turbidity.In the biotechnology industry, a visual assessment is the most commonly used method for color characterization, batch release, and stability testing of liquid protein drug solutions. Using this method, an analyst visually determines the color of the sample by choosing the closest match to a standard color series. This visual method can be subjective because it requires an analyst to make a judgment of the best match of color of the sample to the standard color series, and it does not capture data on hue and chroma that would allow for improved product characterization and the ability to detect subtle differences between samples. To overcome these challenges, we developed a quantitative spectral method for color determination that greatly reduces the variability in measuring color and allows for a more precise understanding of color differences. The details of the spectral quantitative method are described. A comparison between the visual assessment method and spectral quantitative method is presented. This study supports the transition to a quantitative spectral method from the visual assessment method for quality testing of protein solutions.


Wakankar A.,Genentech | Chen Y.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Gokarn Y.,Genentech | Jacobson F.S.,Protein Analytical Chemistry
mAbs | Year: 2011

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), produced through the chemical linkage of a potent small molecule cytotoxin (drug) to a monoclonal antibody, have more complex and heterogeneous structures than the corresponding antibodies. This review describes the analytical methods that have been used in their physicochemical characterization. The selection of the most appropriate methods for a specific ADC is heavily dependent on the properties of the linker, the drug and the choice of attachment sites (lysines, inter-chain cysteines, Fc glycans). Improvements in analytical techniques such as protein mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis have significantly increased the quality of information that can be obtained for use in product and process characterization and for routine lot release and stability testing. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.


Zhang T.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Zhang J.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Hewitt D.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Tran B.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The heterogeneity in therapeutic antibodies arising from buried unpaired cysteines has not been well studied. This paper describes the characterization of two unpaired cysteines in a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody (referred to as mAb A). The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis of mAb A samples showed three distinct peaks, indicating the presence of three species. The heterogeneities observed in the RP-HPLC have been determined to arise from unpaired cysteines (Cys-22 and Cys-96) that are buried in the VH domain. The Fab containing free thiols (referred to as "free-thiol Fab") and the Fab containing the disulfide (referred to as intact Fab) of mAb A were generated through limited Lys-C digestion and purified with an ion exchange chromatography method. The binding of free-thiol Fab and intact Fab to its antigen was measured in a cell-based binding assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The unpaired cysteines in the Fab of mAb A were found to have no significant impact on the binding to its target. Consistent with these Fab binding data, the enriched intact mAb A containing free thiols was determined to be fully active in a potency assay. The data reported here demonstrate that the redox status of cysteines is potentially a major source of heterogeneity for an antibody. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhang L.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Lilyestrom W.,Pharmaceutical Development | Li C.,Protein Analytical Chemistry | Scherer T.,Pharmaceutical Development | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

During purification process development and analytical characterization, a recombinant human monoclonal antibody, referred to as rmAb1, showed an anomalous charge heterogeneity profile by cation-exchange chromatography (CIEC), characterized by extremely high retention and poor resolution between charge variants. Mass spectrometry-based footprinting methodologies that include selective labeling of lysine with sulfosuccinimidyl acetate and arginie with p-hydroxyphenylglyoxal were developed to map the positive charges on the rmAb1 surface. On the basis of the average percentages of labeling obtained for the lysine and arginine residues by peptide mapping analysis, the positive charges were more distributed on the surface in the Fab region than in the Fc region of rmAb1. By a comparative study of in-solution and on-resin labeling reaction dynamics, seven positively charged residues were identified to bind to the cation-exchange resin and they were located in the variable domains. Among them, three lysine and one arginine residues appeared to cluster together on the surface to form a positive charge patch. When the charge patch residues were neutralized by chemical labeling, rmAb1 exhibited a more typical CIEC retention time, confirming that the charge patch was responsible for the atypical CIEC profile of rmAb1. To our knowledge, this work is the first report revealing the amino acid composition of a surface charge patch on therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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