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Peng C.-C.,University of California at Berkeley | Fajardo N.P.,University of California at Berkeley | Razunguzwa T.,Protea Biosciences Group | Radke C.J.,University of California at Berkeley
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2015

Purpose We developed an in vitro model-blink cell that reproduces the mechanism of in vivo fouling of soft contact lenses. In the model-blink cell, model tear lipid directly contacts the lens surface after forced aqueous rupture, mirroring the pre-lens tear-film breakup during interblink. Methods Soft contact lenses are attached to a Teflon holder and immersed in artificial tear solution with protein, salts, and mucins. Artificial tear-lipid solution is spread over the air/tear interface as a duplex lipid layer. The aqueous tear film is periodically ruptured and reformed by withdrawing and reinjecting tear solution into the cell, mimicking the blink-rupture process. Fouled deposits appear on the lenses after cycling, and their compositions and spatial distributions are subsequently analyzed by optical microscopy, laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and two-photon fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy. Results Discrete deposit (white) spots with an average size of 20 to 300 μm are observed on the studied lenses, confirming what is seen in vivo and validating the in vitro model-blink cell. Targeted lipids (cholesterol) and proteins (albumin from bovine serum) are identified in the discrete surface deposits. Both lipid and protein occur simultaneously in the surface deposits and overlap with the white spots observed by optical microscopy. Additionally, lipid and protein penetrate into the bulk of tested silicone-hydrogel lenses, likely attributed to the bicontinuous microstructure of oleophilic silicone and hydrophilic polymer phases of the lens. Conclusions In vitro spoilation of soft contact lenses is successfully achieved by the model-blink cell confirming the tear rupture/deposition mechanism of lens fouling. The model-blink cell provides a reliable laboratory tool for screening new antifouling lens materials, surface coatings, and care solutions. © 2015 American Academy of Optometry. Source

Beach D.G.,National Research Council Canada | Walsh C.M.,Protea Biosciences Group | McCarron P.,National Research Council Canada
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Year: 2014

Eliminating sample extraction or liquid chromatography steps from methods for analysis of the neurotoxin Domoic Acid (DA) in shellfish could greatly increase throughput in food safety testing laboratories worldwide. To this end, we have investigated the use of Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for DA analysis directly from mussel tissue homogenates without sample extraction, cleanup or separation. DA could be selectively detected directly from mussel tissue homogenates using MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring scan mode. The quantitative capabilities of LAESI-MS/MS for DA analysis from mussel tissue were evaluated by analysis of four mussel tissue reference materials using matrix-matched calibration. Linear response was observed from 1 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg and the method limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Results for DA analysis in tissue within the linear range were in good agreement with two established methods, LC-UV and LC-MS/MS (recoveries from 103 to 125%). Beyond the linear range, extraction and clean-up were required to achieve good quantitation. Most notable is the extremely rapid analysis time of about 10 s per sample by LAESI-MS/MS, which corresponds to a significant increase in sample throughput compared with existing methodology for routine DA analysis. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Yu X.,West Virginia University | Li M.,Protea Biosciences Group | O'Doherty G.A.,Northeastern University
Heterocycles | Year: 2011

A method for the asymmetric synthesis of the disaccharide portion of SCH-47554 has been developed in 6 steps. The route is shorter than the reported route to a related disaccharide. The route involves the use of the Noyori reduction to establish the asymmetry of the D-and L-sugar portion of the molecule. Diastereoselective Pd-glycosylation reaction and subsequent post-glycosylation transformation are used to establish the remaining stereocenter. © The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry. Source

Wu B.,West Virginia University | Li M.,Protea Biosciences Group | O'Doherty G.A.,Northeastern University
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

The de novo asymmetric syntheses of several partially acylated dodecanyl tri- and tetra-rhamnoside natural products (cleistriosides-5 and 6 and cleistetrosides-2 to 7) have been achieved (19-24 steps). The divergent route requires the use of three or less protecting groups. The asymmetry was derived via Noyori reduction of an acylfuran. The rhamno-stereochemistry was installed by a diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylation, ketone reduction and dihydroxylation. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Protea Biosciences Group | Date: 2014-06-23

A compound may generally comprise the formula: wherein R

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