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Robinson D.,University of Michigan | Van Allen E.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Van Allen E.M.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Wu Y.-M.,University of Michigan | And 93 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Toward development of a precision medicine framework for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we established a multi-institutional clinical sequencing infrastructure to conduct prospective whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of bone or soft tissue tumor biopsies from a cohort of 150 mCRPC affected individuals. Aberrations of AR, ETS genes, TP53, and PTEN were frequent (40%-60% of cases), with TP53 and AR alterations enriched in mCRPC compared to primary prostate cancer. We identified new genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin, and ZBTB16/PLZF. Moreover, aberrations of BRCA2, BRCA1, and ATM were observed at substantially higher frequencies (19.3% overall) compared to those in primary prostate cancers. 89% of affected individuals harbored a clinically actionable aberration, including 62.7% with aberrations in AR, 65% in other cancer-related genes, and 8% with actionable pathogenic germline alterations. This cohort study provides clinically actionable information that could impact treatment decisions for these affected individuals. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Leibowitz-Amit R.,Princess Margaret Cancer Center | Templeton A.J.,Princess Margaret Cancer Center | Omlin A.,Prostate Cancer Targeted Therapy Group and Drug Development Unit | Pezaro C.,Prostate Cancer Targeted Therapy Group and Drug Development Unit | And 10 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) prolongs overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study's objective was to retrospectively identify factors associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to abiraterone and validate them in an independent cohort. We hypothesized that the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), thought to be an indirect manifestation of tumor-promoting inflammation, may be associated with response to abiraterone. Patients and methods: All patients receiving abiraterone at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre up to March 2013 were reviewed. The primary end point was confirmed PSA response defined as PSA decline ≥50% below baseline maintained for ≥3 weeks. Potential factors associated with PSA response were analyzed using univariate and multivariable analyses to generate a score, which was then evaluated in an independent cohort from Royal Marsden (RM) NHS foundation. Results: A confirmed PSA response was observed in 44 out of 108 assessable patients (41%, 95% confidence interval 31%-50%). In univariate analysis, lower pre-abiraterone baseline levels of lactate dehydrogenase, an NLR ≤ 5 and restricted metastatic spread to either bone or lymph nodes were each associated with PSA response. In multivariable analysis, only low NLR and restricted metastatic spread remained statistically significant. A score derived as the sum of these two categorical variables was associated with response to abiraterone (P = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis on an independent validation cohort of 245 patients verified that this score was associated with response to abiraterone (P = 0.003). It was also associated with OS in an exploratory analysis. Conclusions: A composite score of baseline NLR and extent of metastatic spread is associated with PSA response to abiraterone and OS. Our data may help understand the role of systemic inflammation in mCRPC and warrant further research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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