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Dutta A.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Dutta A.,Thomas Jefferson University | Dutta A.,Tata Translational Cancer Research Center | Li J.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | And 10 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2015

Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 activity depends on a complex signalling cascade that controls expression of several genes. Among others, TGFβ1 regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through activation of Smads. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the αvβ6 integrin interacts with TGFβ receptor II (TβRII) through the β6 cytoplasmic domain and promotes Smad3 activation in prostate cancer (PrCa) cells. Another related αv integrin, αvβ5, as well as the αvβ6/3 integrin, which contains a chimeric form of β6 with a β3 cytoplasmic domain, do not associate with TβRII and fail to show similar responses. We provide evidence that αvβ6 is required for up-regulation of MMP2 by TGFβ1 through a Smad3-mediated transcriptional programme in PrCa cells. The functional relevance of these results is underscored by the finding that αvβ6 modulates cell migration in an MMP2-dependent manner on an αvβ6-specific ligand, latency-associated peptide (LAP)-TGFβ. Overall, these mechanistic studies establish that expression of a single integrin, αvβ6, is sufficient to promote activation of Smad3, regulation of MMP2 levels and consequent catalytic activity, as well as cell migration. Our study describes a new TGFβ1-αvβ6-MMP2 signalling pathway that, given TGFβ1 pro-metastatic activity, may have profound implications for PrCa therapy. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2015 Biochemical Society. Source

Altieri D.C.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Altieri D.C.,Wistar Institute | Stein G.S.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Stein G.S.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2012

Protein folding quality control does not occur randomly in cells, but requires the action of specialized molecular chaperones compartmentalized in subcellular microenvironments and organelles. Fresh experimental evidence has now linked a mitochondrial-specific Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) homolog, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Protein-1 (TRAP-1) to pleiotropic signaling circuitries of organelle integrity and cellular homeostasis. TRAP-1-directed compartmentalized protein folding is broadly exploited in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, presenting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kang B.H.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Kang B.H.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Tavecchio M.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Tavecchio M.,Wistar Institute | And 16 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background:The molecular chaperone heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target, but current Hsp90-based therapy has so far shown limited activity in the clinic.Methods:We tested the efficacy of a novel mitochondrial-targeted, small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitor, Gamitrinib (GA mitochondrial matrix inhibitor), in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model. The TRAMP mice receiving 3-week or 5-week systemic treatment with Gamitrinib were evaluated for localised or metastatic prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or localised inflammation using magnetic resonance imaging, histology and immunohistochemistry. Treatment safety was assessed histologically in organs collected at the end of treatment. The effect of Gamitrinib on mitochondrial dysfunction was studied in RM1 cells isolated from TRAMP tumours.Results:Systemic administration of Gamitrinib to TRAMP mice inhibited the formation of localised prostate tumours of neuroendocrine or adenocarcinoma origin, as well as metastatic prostate cancer to abdominal lymph nodes and liver. The Gamitrinib treatment had no effect on PIN or prostatic inflammation, and caused no significant animal weight loss or organ toxicity. Mechanistically, Gamitrinib triggered acute mitochondrial dysfunction in RM1 cells, with loss of organelle inner membrane potential and release of cytochrome-c in the cytosol.Conclusions:The Gamitrinib has pre-clinical activity and favourable tolerability in a genetic model of localised and metastatic prostate cancer in immunocompetent mice. Selective targeting of mitochondrial Hsp90 could provide novel molecular therapy for patients with advanced prostate cancer. © 2011 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

Siegelin M.D.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Siegelin M.D.,Columbia University | Dohi T.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Dohi T.,Wistar Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Fine tuning of the protein folding environment in subcellular organelles, such as mitochondria, is important for adaptive homeostasis and may participate in human diseases, but the regulators of this process are still largely elusive. Here, we have shown that selective targeting of heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) chaperones in mitochondria of human tumor cells triggered compensatory autophagy and an organelle unfolded protein response (UPR) centered on upregulation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors. In turn, this transcriptional UPR repressed NF-κB-dependent gene expression, enhanced tumor cell apoptosis initiated by death receptor ligation, and inhibited intracranial glioblastoma growth in mice without detectable toxicity. These data reveal what we believe to be a novel role of Hsp90 chaperones in the regulation of the protein-folding environment in mitochondria of tumor cells. Disabling this general adaptive pathway could potentially be used in treatment of genetically heterogeneous human tumors. Source

Leav I.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Plescia J.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Goel H.L.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | Li J.,Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2010

Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family promote cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this pathway in tumor progression are not understood. Here, we show that a mitochondrialocalized Hsp90 chaperone, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP-1), is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in human high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Gleason grades 3 through 5 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and metastatic prostate cancer, but largely undetectable in normal prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia in vivo. Prostate lesions formed in genetic models of the disease, including the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate and mice carrying prostate-specific deletion of the phosphatase tensin homolog tumor suppressor (Pten pc-/-), also exhibit high levels of TRAP-1. Expression of TRAP-1 in nontransformed prostatic epithelial BPH-1 cells inhibited cell death, whereas silencing of TRAP-1 in androgen-independent PC3 or DU145 prostate cancer cells by small interfering RNA enhanced apoptosis. Targeting TRAP-1 with a novel class of mitochondria-directed Hsp90 inhibitors, ie, Gamitrinibs, caused rapid and complete killing of androgen-dependent or -independent prostate cancer, but not BPH-1 cells, whereas reintroduction of TRAP-1 in BPH-1 cells conferred sensitivity to Gamitrinib-induced cell death. These data identify TRAP-1 as a novel mitochondrial survival factor differentially expressed in localized and metastatic prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. Targeting this pathway with Gamitrinibs could be explored as novel molecular therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology. Source

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