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Amherst, MA, United States

Bluestein H.B.,University of Oklahoma | French M.M.,University of Oklahoma | Popstefanija I.,ProSensing | Bluth R.T.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey | Knorr J.B.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

A meteorological weather radar 2005 X-band phased array (MWR-05XP) modified by ProSensing Inc., was used to study severe convective storms and tornadoes on very short time scales and relatively close range. Two radars employed frequency hopping to generate more independent samples and this hopping also allowed pulse pairs to be formed at a common frequency for Doppler velocity estimation. MWR-05XP was field tested in the US Great Plains in 2007 and 2008 when the likelihood of severe weather migrates northward with the upper-level westerlies. The radar probed a tornado at a range of 20-25 km in northeast Oklahoma showing a well-defined hook echo and evidence of a trailing rear-flank gust front and a cyclonic vortex signature coincident with the tip of the hook. The number of tornadic supercells probed showed that none of the supercells were isolated and there were nearby neighboring or connected storms.


Mead J.B.,ProSensing
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2016

Detection of meteorological radar signals is often carried out using power averaging with noise subtraction either in the time domain or the spectral domain. This paper considers the relative signal processing gain of these two methods, showing a clear advantage for spectral-domain processing when normalized spectral width is less than ~0.1. A simple expression for the optimal discrete Fourier transform (DFT) length to maximize signal processing gain is presented that depends only on the normalized spectral width and the time-domain weighting function. The relative signal processing gain between noncoherent power averaging and spectral processing is found to depend on a variety of parameters, including the radar wavelength, spectral width, available observation time, and the false alarm rate. Expressions presented for the probability of detection for noncoherent and spectral-based processing also depend on these same parameters. Results of this analysis show that DFT-based processing can provide a substantial advantage in signal processing gain and probability of detection, especially when the normalized spectral width is small and when a large number of samples are available. Noncoherent power estimation can provide superior probability of detection when the normalized spectral width is greater than ~0.1, especially when the desired false alarm rate exceeds 10%. © 2016 American Meteorological Society.


Grant
Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 400.00K | Year: 2008

This proposal describes the development of compact radiometer receiver modules intended for use in hurricane wind speed imaging radiometers and low cost single beam ocean wind speed sensors. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad), currently under development by a team of government, university and industrial partners, will require ten high performance receiver channels, which must be compact and low cost. During Phase I, ProSensing developed a prototype compact C-band radiometer (CCR) receiver module that employs inexpensive surface mount components to implement a standard Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) in a small, lightweight package. In Phase II, we plan to develop a single sideband version of the CCR receiver module that is designed specifically for installation in the HIRad system. A compact-SFMR system will also be developed in Phase II, with a total instrument weight of 3 kg, including the CCR receiver and horn antenna. Two complete compact-SFMR instruments will be delivered to NOAA, one for deployment on a small UAV, and a second for measuring down welling atmospheric brightness temperature on the NOAA P-3 for improved low wind speed and rain rate measurements.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: This Phase II SBIR proposal describes our effort to develop a combined radiometer and radar sensor to estimate total atmospheric path loss for potential satellite links at V-band and W-band (71-86 GHz). Termed WAXRR, for W-band and X-band Radar Radiometer, this system will be used to generate statistics of total atmospheric loss with a dynamic range exceeding 20 dB. The radiometer section of WAXRR is suitable for measuring total path attenuation under clear or nearly clear sky conditions, while the dual-frequency radar is intended for measuring loss in the presence of stronger clouds and precipitation. The WAXRR system is readily transportable and hosts its own website for remote instrument control and display. BENEFIT: Atmospheric loss statistics generated over a two-year time period in Phase III will be used by the Air Force in evaluating the satellite link budget and potential outage rates at potential sites for satellite ground stations. Commercial applications include profiling super-cooled liquid water above airports for assessing aircraft icing potential and the development of compact, pod-mounted radars and radiometers for airborne cloud and water vapor remote sensing.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2007

This Phase II SBIR proposal describes our effort to develop modular software tools for an advanced mobile rapid scanning weather radar. Phase II R&D will include developing a specialized clutter rejection algorithm suitable for rapid scanning weather radars, and software modules for display of volumetric data using COTS data visualization software. We will also develop software needed to output data in standard NETCDF format and will develop webcasting tools to make data available in real time via a satellite link.

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