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News Article | November 15, 2016

According to a new market report published by Future Market Insights titled “X-Band Radar Market - Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2016 - 2026,” the global X-band radar market was valued at US$ 4.6 Bn in 2015 and is expected to register a CAGR of 3.8% from 2016 to 2026 to reach US$ 6.9 Bn by 2026. Growth of the global X-band radar market is primarily driven by increasing need of advanced security and surveillance systems across the world. Increasing significance of weather and climate predictions, and aviation safety is propelling the demand for X-band radar market globally. X-band radars help improve aviation safety and increase the operational efficiency of the entire air transport industry. Besides, they also provide alerts on floods through continuous monitoring of rainfall. Vendors such as Saab Group and Northrop Grumman Corporation recently introduced weather monitoring radar. Inability to adjust quickly to track a stream of separate missiles is one of the factors restraining the growth of the market. Sea-based X-band radar can be supported by a land-based early warning radar in case of an event of an attack. These radars could help X-band radars by identifying a definite location for Sea-based X-band Radar (SBX) to focus on. However, aiming and re-aiming the giant radar’s beam is a clumsy process. This inhibits X-band radar’s ability to bend swiftly enough to track a range of different missiles. On the basis of type, the global X-band radar market is segmented as mobile X-band radar and sea based-X-band radar. The mobile X-band radar segment was valued US$ 3.1 Bn in 2015 and is anticipated to register a CAGR of 4.1% during the forecast period 2016–2026. The sea-based X-band radar segment was valued US$ 1.5 Bn in 2015. North America, the largest market for X-Band radar, was valued US$ 1.5 Bn in 2015and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period of 2016-2026. In North America region, ARL-E long range radars developed by Northrop Grumman Corporation have witnessed traction in their adoption by the U.S. government. These radars have enhanced the U.S. Army’s C4ISR capabilities. Western Europe region is expected be the second largest market of global X-band radar, followed by Eastern Europe. Ground Master 400 radar, developed by the Raytheon Company is very popular in this region. Key players of the global X-band radar market include Northrop Grumman Corporation, Raytheon Company, Saab Group, Japan Radio Company Limited, Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd, Furuno Electric Co.,Ltd, Terma A/S, Detect, Inc., Reutech Radar Systems, and ProSensing, Inc. Leading players in the global x-band radar market are focusing on the development of end-to-end products and services such as logistics, infrastructure and maintenance, and providing support to their clients. Companies such as Saab Group, Raytheon Corporation, DeTect, Inc. serve both domestic and international government customers as a prime contractor and subcontractor of defence and related programmes.

French M.M.,University of Oklahoma | French M.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Bluestein H.B.,University of Oklahoma | Popstefanija I.,ProSensing | And 2 more authors.
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2013

Observations from a hybrid phased-array Doppler radar, the Mobile Weather Radar, 2005 X-band, Phased Array (MWR-05XP), were used to investigate the vertical development of tornadic vortex signatures (TVSs) during supercell tornadogenesis. Data with volumetric update times of ;10 s, an order of magnitude better than that of most other mobile Doppler radars, were obtained up to storm midlevels during the formation of three tornadoes. It is found that TVSs formed upward with time during tornadogenesis for two cases. In a third case, missing low-level data prevented a complete time-height analysis of TVS development; however, TVS formation occurred first near the ground and then at storm midlevels several minutes later. These results are consistent with the small number of volumetric mobile Doppler radar tornadogenesis cases from the past ;10 years, but counter to studies prior to that, in which a descending TVS was observed in roughly half of tornado cases utilizing Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data. A comparative example is used to examine the possible effects relatively long WSR-88D volumetric update times have on determining the mode of tornadogenesis. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Goodberlet M.A.,ProSensing | Mead J.B.,ProSensing
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Spaceborne radiometers operating near 1.4 GHz are the primary instrument for recent efforts to remotely sense nearsurface soil moisture around the globe. Generally, these instruments must contend with the effects of vegetation growing in the soil. However, an important first step is to model the measurements made by a radiometer that is viewing bare (vegetation-free) soil. The proposed model uses a matching layer and a random depolarizer to describe bare soil surface roughness and some aspects of antenna beamwidth. The model suggests that the effects of nearsurface soil moisture and roughness upon the radiometer measurement are more distinct than is currently thought. Furthermore, it appears that both moisture and roughness can be retrieved from a single set of radiometer measurements made at orthogonal linear polarizations. This retrieval precision is predicted to be poor at soil observation angles near nadir but improves for larger angles. At observation angles near 50 ̂, the vertically polarized radiometer measurements are predicted to be nearly insensitive to roughness. A convenient parameterization of the model is provided and permits quick implementation. © 2014 IEEE.

Pazmany A.L.,ProSensing | Mead J.B.,ProSensing | Bluestein H.B.,University of Oklahoma | Snyder J.C.,University of Oklahoma | Houser J.B.,University of Oklahoma
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2013

A novel, rapid-scanning, X-band (3-cm wavelength), polarimetric (RaXPol), mobile radar was developed for severe-weather research. The radar employs a 2.4-m-diameter dual-polarized parabolic dish antenna on a high-speed pedestal capable of rotating the antenna at 180°s-1. The radar can complete a 10-elevation-step volume scan in about 20 s, while maintaining a 180-record-per-second data rate. The transmitter employs a 20-kW peak-power traveling wave tube amplifier that can generate pulse compression and frequencyhopping waveforms. Frequency hopping permits the acquisition of many more independent samples possible than without frequency hopping, making it possible to scan much more rapidly than conventional radars. Standard data products include vertically and horizontally polarized equivalent radar reflectivity factor, Doppler velocity mean and standard deviation, copolar cross-correlation coefficient, and differential phase. This paper describes the radar system and illustrates the capabilities of the radar through selected analyses of data collected in the U.S. central plains during the 2011 spring tornado season. Also noted are opportunities for experimenting with different signal-processing techniques to reduce beam smearing, increase sensitivity, and improve range resolution. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Bluestein H.B.,University of Oklahoma | French M.M.,University of Oklahoma | Popstefanija I.,ProSensing | Bluth R.T.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey | Knorr J.B.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

A meteorological weather radar 2005 X-band phased array (MWR-05XP) modified by ProSensing Inc., was used to study severe convective storms and tornadoes on very short time scales and relatively close range. Two radars employed frequency hopping to generate more independent samples and this hopping also allowed pulse pairs to be formed at a common frequency for Doppler velocity estimation. MWR-05XP was field tested in the US Great Plains in 2007 and 2008 when the likelihood of severe weather migrates northward with the upper-level westerlies. The radar probed a tornado at a range of 20-25 km in northeast Oklahoma showing a well-defined hook echo and evidence of a trailing rear-flank gust front and a cyclonic vortex signature coincident with the tip of the hook. The number of tornadic supercells probed showed that none of the supercells were isolated and there were nearby neighboring or connected storms.

Mead J.B.,ProSensing
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2016

Detection of meteorological radar signals is often carried out using power averaging with noise subtraction either in the time domain or the spectral domain. This paper considers the relative signal processing gain of these two methods, showing a clear advantage for spectral-domain processing when normalized spectral width is less than ~0.1. A simple expression for the optimal discrete Fourier transform (DFT) length to maximize signal processing gain is presented that depends only on the normalized spectral width and the time-domain weighting function. The relative signal processing gain between noncoherent power averaging and spectral processing is found to depend on a variety of parameters, including the radar wavelength, spectral width, available observation time, and the false alarm rate. Expressions presented for the probability of detection for noncoherent and spectral-based processing also depend on these same parameters. Results of this analysis show that DFT-based processing can provide a substantial advantage in signal processing gain and probability of detection, especially when the normalized spectral width is small and when a large number of samples are available. Noncoherent power estimation can provide superior probability of detection when the normalized spectral width is greater than ~0.1, especially when the desired false alarm rate exceeds 10%. © 2016 American Meteorological Society.

Zuidema P.,University of Miami | Leon D.,University of Wyoming | Pazmany A.,ProSensing | Cadeddu M.,Argonne National Laboratory
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Routine liquid water path measurements and water vapor path are valuable for process studies of the cloudy marine boundary layer and for the assessment of large-scale models. The VOCALS Regional Experiment respected this goal by including a small, inexpensive, upward-pointing millimeter-wavelength passive radiometer on the fourteen research flights of the NCAR C-130 plane, the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR). The radiometer permitted above-cloud retrievals of the free-tropospheric water vapor path (WVP). Retrieved free-tropospheric (above-cloud) water vapor paths possessed a strong longitudinal gradient, with off-shore values of one to two mm and near-coastal values reaching ten mm. The VOCALS-REx free troposphere was drier than that of previous years. Cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) were retrieved from the sub-cloud and cloudbase aircraft legs through a combination of the GVR, remotely-sensed cloud boundary information, and in-situ thermodynamic data. The absolute (between-leg) and relative (within-leg) accuracy of the LWP retrievals at 1 Hz (∼100 m) resolution was estimated at 20 g m-2 and 3 g m-2 respectively for well-mixed conditions, and 25 g m-2 absolute uncertainty for decoupled conditions where the input WVP specification was more uncertain. Retrieved liquid water paths matched adiabatic values derived from coincident cloud thickness measurements exceedingly well. A significant contribution of the GVR dataset was the extended information on the thin clouds, with 62 % (28 %) of the retrieved LWPs <100 (40) g m -2. Coastal LWPs values were lower than those offshore. For the four dedicated 20 S flights, the mean (median) coastal LWP was 67 (61) g m -2, increasing to 166 (120) g m-2 1500 km offshore. The overall LWP cloud fraction from thirteen research flights was 63 %, higher than that of adiabatic LWPs at 40 %, but lower than the lidar-determined cloud cover of 85 %, further testifying to the frequent occurrence of thin clouds. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Goodberlet M.A.,ProSensing | Popstefanija I.,ProSensing
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2013

The well-known sample variance estimator utilizes N samples from a random process to first estimate the process mean. The estimator then uses the same N samples to estimate variance from this mean. Process variance could also be estimated by first using less than N samples to estimate the mean, followed by using all N samples to estimate variance. Two-scale estimators of this type, both causal and noncausal, are defined. Statistics for these estimators are derived, which are valid for samples from any statistical distribution. These statistics are used to improve analysis of a previously reported device called the double detector. In microwave radiometry, the double detector senses the presence of deterministic signals, often called radio-frequency interference, that corrupt the usual measurement consisting only of Planck radiation. © 2012 IEEE.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: This Phase II SBIR proposal describes our effort to develop a combined radiometer and radar sensor to estimate total atmospheric path loss for potential satellite links at V-band and W-band (71-86 GHz). Termed WAXRR, for W-band and X-band Radar Radiometer, this system will be used to generate statistics of total atmospheric loss with a dynamic range exceeding 20 dB. The radiometer section of WAXRR is suitable for measuring total path attenuation under clear or nearly clear sky conditions, while the dual-frequency radar is intended for measuring loss in the presence of stronger clouds and precipitation. The WAXRR system is readily transportable and hosts its own website for remote instrument control and display. BENEFIT: Atmospheric loss statistics generated over a two-year time period in Phase III will be used by the Air Force in evaluating the satellite link budget and potential outage rates at potential sites for satellite ground stations. Commercial applications include profiling super-cooled liquid water above airports for assessing aircraft icing potential and the development of compact, pod-mounted radars and radiometers for airborne cloud and water vapor remote sensing.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: This Phase I SBIR proposal describes our plan to develop a compact dual-channel V-band and W-band radiometer for measuring total path attenuation on a satellite to ground communications link. Design goals for this instrument include a compact design with built in calibration loads, including a COLFET that achieves a low temperature reference without the need of cryogenic cooling. To simplify the electronics design, direct detection at RF is anticipated. Phase I research will result in a detailed radiometer design, and an algorithm coded to extracting total path attenuation from measured brightness temperature. BENEFIT: Successful development of the proposed dual band radiometer will result in a compact, all-weather instrument suitable for continuous monitoring of total path attenuation. Attention to a modular design adaptable to other frequency bands, in a compact package suitable for installation in standard aircraft probe canisters will promote sales for ground-based as well as airborne applications.

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