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van Lankveld G.,Technical University of Delft | van Lankveld G.,Open University in the Netherlands | Sehic E.,ProRail | Lo J.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2017

Background. The Dutch railway company ProRail is performing large-scale capacity upgrades to their infrastructure network. As part of these upgrades, ProRail uses gaming simulations to help prepare train traffic controllers for new infrastructure situations. Researching the validity of these gaming simulations is essential, since the conclusions drawn from gaming simulation use may result in decisions with large financial and social impact for ProRail and Dutch train passengers. Aim. In this article, we aim to investigate the validity of the gaming simulations for training traffic controllers for new situations in rail infrastructure. We also aim to contribute to the discussion on the minimum level of fidelity required to develop and conduct gaming simulations in a valid way. Method. We investigate the validity by using training sessions in conjunction with questionnaires. We based the approach and questionnaires on the earlier work of Raser. Results. Our results show that the validity of the gaming simulation ranges from medium to good. They also show that while the fidelity of the gaming simulation is not like the real-world operating conditions, this does not reduce validity to low levels. Conclusions. We conclude that the gaming simulation used in this study was of medium to good validity. We also conclude that maximum fidelity is not required in order to run a valid gaming simulation session. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Kuijpers A.,MP Consulting Engineers | Schwanen W.,MP Consulting Engineers | Roovers C.,ProRail
Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future | Year: 2016

At the end of 2014, rail roughness control was first applied on a significant scale on the Dutch conventional rail network. Due to a traffic increase between Groningen and Leeuwarden, the noise emission was expected to exceed the legal limits obliging ProRail to take counter measures. Traditional noise mitigation measures (noise barriers) were planned, but it takes some time before these are in effect. ProRail decided to use rail roughness control to bridge this timespan. The grinding company, the infrastructure manager and the monitoring and consultancy company together shaped a program to control the roughness. In this paper, we will show the complete process of the implementation of a rail roughness control program in a real-life situation. We specified the desired noise reduction, based on the legal requirements and translated this into a desired rail condition. We then devised and carried out a monitoring program: a combination of periodic stationary and dynamic (on-board) measurements. We will describe how we dealt with real-life situations such as changes in superstructure, bridges, switches, speed variations etc. and how the monitoring results can be communicated with the authorities, to show that the achieved rail condition is in compliance with the legal limits. © 2016, German Acoustical Society (DEGA). All rights reserved.


Spruit R.,City of Rotterdam | Mastbroek H.,ProRail | Van Hengstum L.,ProRail
High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium | Year: 2017

The river Waal (Rhine) had a narrow bend between Nijmegen and Lent. This bottle-neck often caused local flooding. To reduce the obstruction, the flood plain has been transformed into a permanent parallel branch of the river. A railway bridge from 1876 has three pillars in the planned excavation area (see Fig. 1). The foundation of each pillar had to be adapted to prevent undercutting of the raft foundation. This paper will focus on the encountered design challenges and will illustrate the importance of risk based, integrated design for complex projects. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.


Lentink R.M.,Netherlands Railways | Middelkoop D.,ProRail | de Vries D.,ProRail
Public Transport | Year: 2017

Although Dutch train operation is one of the safest in the European Union, safety remains one of the top priorities. On a yearly basis, an estimated 7 million red signal approaches occur on the Dutch railway network for the largest train operating company NS Reizigers. These red signals alert a driver to prepare to stop the train, possibly because the next section of the track is occupied by another train. Out of these 7 million red signal approaches, 3 million red signal approaches are estimated to be caused by small deviations from the planning. As a result of this continuous focus on safety aspects, ProRail, the Dutch rail infrastructure manager, and NSR started a project to empower train drivers with more information on the current situation and near future related to their trains. In a simulation study four train driving strategies were compared in two areas in the network. These strategies, ranked in order of increasing level of driver information quality, are: first is driving at highest allowed speed, second is following the timetable without advisory speed information, third is using advisory speed information without changing train orders, and fourth is using advisory speed information with the possibility of changing train orders. At each location the timetable has been exposed to three increasing levels of disturbance scenarios. Results show that the advisory speeds strategy (third) reaps a large part of the safety benefits that the fourth (limited Centrally Guided Train Operation) strategy is able to achieve. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Xin L.,Technical University of Delft | Markine V.L.,Technical University of Delft | Shevtsov I.Y.,ProRail
Wear | Year: 2016

In this paper a numerical procedure for analysis of rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction for the railway turnout crossing is presented. To analyse wheel-rail interaction, a three-dimensional explicit finite element (FE) model of a wheelset passing a turnout crossing is developed to obtain the dynamic responses such as the contact forces, displacements and accelerations as well as the stresses and strain in the crossing nose. The material model accounting for elastic-plastic isotropic and kinematic hardening effects in rails is adopted. The fatigue life of the rails is defined as the time to rolling contact fatigue crack initiation. In predicting the fatigue life Jiang and Sehitoglu model is used, which is based on the critical plane approach. Using the FE simulation results the ten critical locations on the crossing nose susceptible to crack initiation are determined first. Then, using the fatigue model the critical planes in these locations are obtained and the number of cycles to fatigue crack initiation is calculated for each location, based on which the most decisive location and the crossing life is determined. The results of the numerical simulations are presented and discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Pel A.J.,Technical University of Delft | Bel N.H.,ProRail | Pieters M.,Significance
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

Transit passengers' response to crowded conditions has been studied empirically, yet is limitedly included in transport models currently used in the design of policy and infrastructure investments. This has consequences for the practical applicability of these models in studies on, for instance, timetabling, train capacity management strategies, project appraisal, and passenger satisfaction. Here we propose four methods to include the effect of crowding, based on existing studies on passengers' perception and response as well as often-used crowding indicators. These four alternative methods are implemented in the train passenger assignment procedure of the Dutch national transport model, and evaluated with respect to their impacts on the model results for the Dutch railway network. The four methods relate to four different ways in which an additive trip penalty and/or time-multiplier can be incorporated in the train utility function for different travel purposes, to capture the disutility of crowding as measured by the load factor. The analyses of the test case favor the hybrid method using both a boarding penalty (capturing seat availability upon boarding) and a time-multiplier (capturing physical comfort and safety throughout the trip). This method produces consistent results, while the additional computational effort that it imposes is acceptable. Further empirical underpinning is needed to conclusively show which of these methods best captures passengers' response behavior quantitatively (for different travel purposes and conditions). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Markine V.L.,Technical University of Delft | Steenbergen M.J.M.M.,Technical University of Delft | Shevtsov I.Y.,ProRail
Wear | Year: 2011

A railway switch (turnout) is a very important element of the railway infrastructure. Due to the discontinuity in the rail geometry high dynamic amplification of the wheel loads occurs in the crossing nose. These dynamic forces can severely damage the turnout structure. Especially the high-frequency impact loads (the so-called P1 forces) are responsible for RCF damage on the crossing nose. In the present study the relationship between the elastic properties of the turnout supporting structure (such as the rail pads, under sleeper pads and ballast mats) and the occurrence of RCF damage on the crossing point has been investigated. The RCF damage can be reduced by decreasing the high-frequency dynamic forces in the crossing nose. The dynamic interaction between the railway vehicle and track structure has been analysed numerically using DARTS_NL software (TU Delft). The performance of the turnout has been assessed using numerical simulations in which a railway vehicle (the ICE locomotive) was running through the turnout at 140. km/h. In this simulation only the vertical dynamic forces in the crossing point have been considered: lateral behaviour was disregarded. The results of the parameter analysis have demonstrated that by varying the elastic properties of the supporting track structure the forces on the crossing point can be significantly reduced. It was also shown that by varying substructure elasticity the dynamic forces on other track components such as sleepers and ballast can be reduced as well. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Li Z.,Technical University of Delft | Dollevoet R.,ProRail | Molodova M.,Technical University of Delft | Zhao X.,Technical University of Delft
Wear | Year: 2011

This paper presents evidences obtained by field monitoring, measurement and survey to show the validity of some numerical predictions about squat growth. The predictions concerns a postulated squat growth process, the relationship between the dynamic contact force and the corrugation-like wave pattern that often follows squats, the high frequency wheel-rail interaction related to squats, and the influence of tangential force on squat growth. The observations reveal signature tunes of squats which may be used for early detection of squats, show the necessity to include high frequency dynamic wheel-rail interaction in squat-related analyses, and provide evidence of relationship between rolling stock performance and squat initiation and growth. In validating the numerical results the model is also verified for its applicability to analyses of squat-related problem and other problems similar in nature. The model can be employed for the solution of three-dimensional frictional rolling contact problems. It can also be used for analyses of loading conditions of wheel-rail contact at short wave defects, and the associated damages such as wear, plastic deformation, fatigue and corrugation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Markine V.L.,Technical University of Delft | Shevtsov I.Y.,ProRail
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2011

The article describes a numerical procedure for optimum design of a railway wheel profile. The optimization performed using the optimality criteria based on a rolling radius difference function, which account for the reduction ofwear and contact stresses aswell as for stability of the vehicle. As a general optimization technique the multipoint approximations method is employed. The described procedure has been applied to improve the wheel profile design for a passenger train that was suffering from rolling contact fatigue defects in the rails and wheels. In order to account for uncertainties inherent to the wheel production process, the robustness of the optimum wheel profile was analysed. The failure criterion was formulated using the vehicle stability requirement. The failure probability was estimated using the Monte Carlo method and modified Latin hypercube sampling technique. The results are presented and discussed. © Authors 2011.


Meijer S.A.,Technical University of Delft | Mayer I.S.,Technical University of Delft | van Luipen J.,ProRail | Weitenberg N.,ProRail
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2012

Stakeholders in the Netherlands' rail cargo sector exhibit strategic behavior that causes irregularity and unpredictability in freight trains. This leads to the suboptimal use of scarce rail capacity. The authors present the results of a research project that used gaming to explore and validate alternative organizational methods for the management of rail cargo capacity with decision makers and subject matter experts from ProRail, the Netherlands' railway infrastructure manager. Various scenarios for the organization of rail cargo capacity management were played out, tested, and extensively debriefed in three project phases. The gaming sessions demonstrated that open information sharing among stakeholders does not depend on the introduction of price mechanisms and is, indeed, a more effective way of managing capacity. The authors conclude that it is vital to introduce gaming gradually and build up organizational acceptance for this method. However, once acceptance has been achieved, gaming can generate valuable insight into strategic behavior and the performance of sociotechnical infrastructures. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

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