Florianópolis, Brazil
Florianópolis, Brazil

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Bellini C.,Projeto Tamar ICMBio | Santos A.J.B.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Grossman A.,All Angle Imagens LTDA | Marcovaldi M.A.,Fundacao Pro Tamar | Barata P.C.R.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2013

In this paper, information is presented on green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting on Atol das Rocas (Rocas Atoll), north-eastern Brazil. The temporal distribution of nesting events per season, annual number of nests, carapace length of nesting females, clutch size, hatching success, incubation period, internesting interval, clutch frequency, observed reproductive lifespan, and remigration period are reported. The study period included the nesting seasons from 1990 to 2008, but no regular beach monitoring was carried out in 1998 and 1999. Two sorts of methods were applied to the estimation of the annual number of nests in some seasons. Taking into account the estimated annual numbers of nests, the mean annual number of nests in the study period, excluding 1998-1999, was 335 (standard deviation = 139, range = 136-563, N = 17). An analysis of the available data indicates that the average nesting levels at the beginning of the study period (the first five seasons) and at its end (the last five seasons) were roughly the same. The mean curved carapace length of the nesting turtles decreased significantly during the study period, from 115.9 cm in 1990-1992 to 112.9 cm in 2006-2008. Atol das Rocas was established as a federal biological reserve in 1979, but regular sea turtle conservation activities actually started there in 1990. Since that year, the killing of nesting turtles has ceased, nesting activity by the turtles can proceed in an undisturbed fashion, and their clutches can incubate in a protected environment. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2012.


PubMed | Projeto TAMAR ICMBIO and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2016

Fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease characterized by the formation of multiple tumors affecting different species of sea turtles and, most often, the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), is considered one of the major threats to the survival of this species. Recent studies indicate that Chelonid herpesvirus (ChHV5) is the etiological agent of this disease, though its association with anthropogenically altered environments and the immune status of these animals also appears to contribute to disease expression and tumor formation. In this study, tumor biopsy and secretions from green turtles captured off the coast of So Paulo State, Brazil, were used in histological and molecular analyses to detect and characterize circulating ChHV5. In 40.9% of cases, the tumor histopathological findings revealed focal ballooning degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies, results which are suggestive of viral infection. ChHV5 was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the animals skin, ocular tumor biopsies, and ocular and oral secretions. The analysis of the detected ChHV5 sequences revealed two distinct genetic sequences together. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Brazilian samples were similar to ChHV5 samples described for the Atlantic phylogeographic group and are therefore part of the same clade as the Gulf of Guinea and Puerto Rico samples. This similarity suggests a possible flow of the virus between these three regions.


Vilaca S.T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Vilaca S.T.,University of Ferrara | Vargas S.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Vargas S.M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ∼40 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Torezani E.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Baptistotte C.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Mendes S.L.,University Federal do Espriito Santo | Barata P.C.R.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2010

This study, carried out from August 2000 to July 2006, began out of the recognition of a special ecological situation, when an aggregation of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was found inside the effluent discharge channel of a steel plant located near Vitria, the State of Esprito Santo capital, eastern Brazil. The green turtles were captured through either cast nets or a set net or by hand (one turtle was captured alive on one of the channel banks); after data collection, they were released back into the discharge channel. Information is here reported on the temporal pattern of occurrence, size-classes, residency, presence of tumours and growth rates of tumoured and non-tumoured green turtles in the study area. A total of 640 individual green turtles were captured in the six years; 448 of them were captured just once, and 192 were captured two or more times. Curved carapace length ranged between 25.2 and 77.5cm. Among the captured green turtles, 59.1% were classified as being in normal body condition and without any tumours, 6.6% were either underweight or emaciated but without any tumours, and 34.4% had tumours, with different levels of the tumour severity score. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2009.


Santos R.G.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Martins A.S.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Farias J.D.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Horta P.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 6 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL. = 44.0. cm (SD 6.7. cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Almeida A.P.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Moreira L.M.P.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Moreira L.M.P.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Bruno S.C.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | And 4 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2011

Green turtles Chelonia mydas nesting at Trindade Island, 1140 km off the coast of Brazil, were monitored discontinuously from 1982/83 to 2008/09. For 7 years during this period, the majority of nesting was monitored, and the number of nests deposited on Trindade varied from 1333 to 5261. Based on these nest counts, Trindade is among the most important known Atlantic nesting sites for green turtles. The population remained stable between 1991 and 2008. Data on female body size, clutch size, internesting intervals, remigration intervals, and hatching success are also presented. © Inter-Research 2011.


Almeida A.P.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Bruno S.C.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Scalfoni J.T.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Giffoni B.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | And 3 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2011

Four female leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea were satellite tracked from the southeastern coast of Brazil (3 from nesting beaches in the state of Espírito Santo, and 1 recovered from a driftnet off the coast of the state of São Paulo), representing the first study of movements of leatherbacks nesting on Brazilian grounds. The results suggest that during the internesting period, leatherbacks may disperse up to 160 km from the nesting beach using an area of 4400 km2. Tracking also revealed shared feeding areas in southern South America, comprising Brazilian, Uruguayan, and Argentinean waters, and highlighted important interactions with fisheries along nesting, migratory, and feeding habitats. The presence in migratory/foraging areas of turtles from at least 2 different nesting populations from both sides of the South Atlantic Ocean supports the concept that management efforts for this species must incorporate a broad regional perspective. © Inter-Research 2011.


Naro-Maciel E.,CUNY - College of Staten Island | Bondioli A.C.V.,Institute Pesquisas Cananeia IPeC | Martin M.,Yale University | De Padua Almeida A.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2012

Current understanding of spatial ecology is insufficient in many threatened marine species, failing to provide a solid basis for conservation and management. To address this issue for globally endangered green turtles, we investigated their population distribution by sequencing a mitochondrial control region segment from the Rocas Atoll courtship area (n = 30 males) and four feeding grounds (FGs) in Brazil (n = 397), and compared our findings to published data (nnesting = 1205; nfeeding = 1587). At Rocas Atoll, the first Atlantic courtship area sequenced to date, we found males were differentiated from local juveniles but not from nesting females. In combination with tag data, this indicates possible male philopatry. The most common haplotypes detected at the study sites were CMA-08 and CMA-05, and significant temporal variation was not revealed. Although feeding grounds were differentiated overall, intra-regional structure was less pronounced. Ascension was the primary natal source of the study FGs, with Surinam and Trindade as secondary sources. The study clarified the primary connectivity between Trindade and Brazil. Possible linkages to African populations were considered, but there was insufficient resolution to conclusively determine this connection. The distribution of FG haplotype lineages was nonrandom and indicative of regional clustering. The study investigated impacts of population size, geographic distance, ocean currents, and juvenile natal homing on connectivity, addressed calls for increased genetic sampling in the southwestern Atlantic, and provided data important for conservation of globally endangered green turtles. © 2012 The American Genetic Association.


Marcovaldi M.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Lopez G.G.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Soares L.S.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Lima E.H.S.M.,Fundacao Pro TAMAR | And 2 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2010

We studied inter- and postnesting movements in the major loggerhead Caretta caretta nesting population in Brazil. Ten breeding females were satellite-tracked from nesting grounds in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, for up to 1284 d. Eight females stayed in the nesting area after deployment, showing fidelity between internesting home ranges and nesting locations, even at a local scale. During postnesting movements, all of the turtles migrated to the northern coast of Brazil to individual foraging areas on the continental shelf. Distances between nesting and foraging areas reached up to 2400 km, and migration lasted from 28 to 47 d. Five females were tracked during subsequent breeding migrations to the nesting area at different remigration intervals of 2 or 3 yr. Females were also tracked during a second postnesting migration back to foraging areas, and these showed strong fidelity to foraging grounds. Movements to and from foraging grounds occurred along the shelf, clearly delineating a migratory corridor. The northern coast of Brazil, specifically the coast of the state of Ceará, is an important foraging ground for loggerheads nesting along the northern coast of Bahia. © Inter-Research 2010.


Vilaca S.T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lara-Ruiz P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Marcovaldi M.A.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Soares L.S.,Projeto TAMAR ICMBio | Santos F.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2013

We studied hawksbills from Brazilian feeding aggregates and nesting colonies to ascertain the origin and genealogical relationship of individuals in the largest southern Atlantic remnant population by using sequences of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region and five autosomal genes. A phylogeographic analysis of 246 hawksbills showed four distinct mtDNA haplogroups in the feeding grounds, while only one was found in Brazilian rookeries. We found significant differences among nesting sites in Brazil, and among them and other rookeries worldwide. Differences among Brazilian feeding aggregation sites and others around the world were also found. We were able to show that hawksbills from feeding aggregates at the Brazilian islands of Fernando de Noronha and Rocas Atoll were mainly derived from Brazilian and Caribbean rookeries, although some were related to individuals from the eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, indicating large transoceanic migrations for this species. The nuclear data presented no structure and no signal of demographic change. Mixed stock analyses indicated that Brazilian rookeries contribute mostly to Brazilian feeding grounds, and in a smaller proportion to feeding aggregations in the Caribbean and eastern Atlantic. Finally, hybrids found frequently in rookeries of the Bahia State are not present in the feeding grounds, and thus, may display different feeding and migratory behaviors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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