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Kigali, Rwanda

Schmidt C.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | Smith C.,EMMES Corporation | Barin B.,EMMES Corporation | Bakhtyari A.,Simbec Research Ltd | And 27 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2012

Background: Recently, more clinical trials are being conducted in Africa and Asia, therefore, background morbidity in the respective populations is of interest. Between 2000 and 2007, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative sponsored 19 Phase 1 or 2A preventive HIV vaccine trials in the US, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and India, enrolling 900 healthy HIV-1 uninfected volunteers. Objective:To assess background morbidity as reflected by unsolicited adverse events (AEs), unrelated to study vaccine, reported in clinical trials from four continents. Methods:All but three clinical trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Study procedures and data collection methods were standardized. The frequency and severity of AEs reported during the first year of the trials were analyzed. To avoid confounding by vaccine-related events, solicited reactogenicity and other AEs occurring within 28 d after any vaccination were excluded. Results:In total, 2134 AEs were reported by 76% of all participants; 73% of all events were mild. The rate of AEs did not differ between placebo and vaccine recipients. Overall, the percentage of participants with any AE was higher in Africa (83%) compared with Europe (71%), US (74%) and India (65%), while the percentage of participants with AEs of moderate or greater severity was similar in all regions except India. In all regions, the most frequently reported AEs were infectious diseases, followed by gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusions:Despite some regional differences, in these healthy participants selected for low risk of HIV infection, background morbidity posed no obstacle to clinical trial conduct and interpretation. Data from controlled clinical trials of preventive interventions can offer valuable insights into the health of the eligible population. Source


Mpendo J.,Uganda Virus Research Institute IAVI | Mutua G.,University of Nairobi | Nyombayire J.,Projet San Francisco PSF | Ingabire R.,Projet San Francisco PSF | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans include i) co-administration of molecular adjuvants, ii) intramuscular administration followed by in vivo electroporation (IM/EP) and/or iii) boosting with a different vaccine. Combining these strategies provided protection of macaques challenged with SIV; this clinical trial was designed to mimic the vaccine regimen in the SIV study. Methods: Seventy five healthy, HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled into a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multi-antigenic HIV (HIVMAG) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine alone or co-administered with pDNA encoding human Interleukin 12 (IL-12) (GENEVAX IL-12) given by IM/EP using the TriGrid Delivery System was tested in different prime-boost regimens with recombinant Ad35 HIV vaccine given IM. Results: All local reactions but one were mild or moderate. Systemic reactions and unsolicited adverse events including laboratory abnormalities did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. T cell and antibody response rates after HIVMAG (x3) prime-Ad35 (x1) boost were independent of IL-12, while the magnitude of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT responses was highest after HIVMAG (x3) without IL-12. The quality and phenotype of T cell responses shown by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) were similar between groups. Inhibition of HIV replication by autologous T cells was demonstrated after HIVMAG (x3) prime and was boosted after Ad35. HIV specific antibodies were detected only after Ad35 boost, although there was a priming effect with 3 doses of HIVMAG with or without IL-12. No anti-IL-12 antibodies were detected. Conclusion: The vaccines were safe, well tolerated and moderately immunogenic. Repeated administration IM/EP was well accepted. An adjuvant effect of co-administered plasmid IL-12 was not detected. Copyright © 2015 Mpendo et al. Source


Schmidt C.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative IAVI | Jaoko W.,University of Nairobi | Omosa-Manyonyi G.,University of Nairobi | Kaleebu P.,UVRI IAVI HIV Vaccine Program | And 17 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Long-term safety is critical for the development and later use of a vaccine to prevent HIV/AIDS. Likewise, the persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies and their impact on HIV testing must be established. IAVI has sponsored several Phase I and IIA HIV vaccine trials enrolling healthy, HIV-seronegative African volunteers. Plasmid DNA and viral vector based vaccines were tested. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After completion of vaccine trials conducted between 2001-2007, both vaccine and placebo recipients were offered enrolment into an observational long-term follow-up study (LTFU) to monitor potential late health effects and persistence of immune responses. At scheduled 6-monthly clinic visits, a health questionnaire was administered; clinical events were recorded and graded for severity. Blood was drawn for HIV testing and cellular immune assays. 287 volunteers were enrolled; total follow-up after last vaccination was 1463 person years (median: 5.2 years). Ninety-three (93)% of volunteers reported good health at their last LTFU visit. Infectious diseases and injuries accounted for almost 50% of the 175 reported clinical events, of which over 95% were mild or moderate in severity. There were 30 six pregnancies, six incident HIV infections and 14 volunteers reported cases of social harm. Persistence of immune responses was rare. No safety signal was identified. No potentially vaccine-related medical condition, no immune mediated disease, or malignancy was reported. HIV vaccines studied in these trials had a low potential of induction of persisting HIV antibodies. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source


Ruzagira E.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Abaasa A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Karita E.,Projet San Francisco PSF | Mulenga J.,Zambia Emory HIV Research Project ZEHRP | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials. Methods: Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa) and the proportion of 'out-of-range' values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated. Results: In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH) values in one season were "out-of- range" in the other. Twenty-two (22) percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin) to 40.0% (eosinophils). Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%), LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%), and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%). Conclusions: Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the evaluation of adult clinical laboratory parameters in HIV prevention and other clinical trials in these countries. © 2014 Ruzagira et al. Source

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