Project San Francisco PSF

Kigali, Rwanda

Project San Francisco PSF

Kigali, Rwanda
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Wallis C.L.,University of Witwatersrand | Papathanasopoulos M.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Lakhi S.,Zambia Emory HIV Research Project ZEHRP | Karita E.,Project San Francisco PSF | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2010

The introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in resource-poor settings is effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and prolonging life of infected individuals. This has led to a demand for affordable HIV-1 drug resistance assays, since treatment failure due to development of drug resistance is common. This study developed and evaluated an affordable "in-house" genotyping assay to monitor HIV-1 drug resistance in Africa, particularly South Africa. An "in-house" assay using automated RNA extraction, and subtype C specific PCR and sequencing primers was developed and successfully evaluated 396 patient samples (viral load ranges 1000-1.6 million RNA copies/ml). The "in-house" assay was validated by comparing sequence data and drug resistance profiles from 90 patient and 10 external quality control samples to data from the ViroSeq™ HIV-1 Genotyping kit. The "in-house" assay was more efficient, amplifying all 100 samples, compared to 91 samples using Viroseq. The "in house" sequences were 99.2% homologous to the ViroSeq sequences, and identical drug resistance mutation profiles were observed in 96 samples. Furthermore, the "in-house" assay genotyped 260 of 295 samples from seven African sites, where 47% were non-subtype C. Overall, the newly validated "in-house" drug resistance assay is suited for use in Africa as it overcomes the obstacle of subtype diversity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kelley A.L.,Zambia Emory HIV Research Project ZEHRP | Hagaman A.K.,Emory University | Wall K.M.,Emory University | Karita E.,Project San Francisco PSF | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: Many African adults do not know that partners in steady or cohabiting relationships can have different HIV test results. Despite WHO recommendations for couples' voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), fewer than 10 % of couples have been jointly tested and counseled. We examine the roles and interactions of influential network leaders (INLs) and influential network agents (INAs) in promoting CVCT in Kigali, Rwanda and Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: INLs were identified in the faith-based, non-governmental, private, and health sectors. Each INL recruited and mentored several INAs who promoted CVCT. INLs and INAs were interviewed about demographic characteristics, promotional efforts, and working relationships. We also surveyed CVCT clients about sources of CVCT information. Results: In Zambia, 53 INAs and 31 INLs were surveyed. In Rwanda, 33 INAs and 27 INLs were surveyed. Most (75 %-90 %) INAs believed that INL support was necessary for their promotional work. Zambian INLs reported being more engaged with their INAs than Rwandan INLs, with 58 % of Zambian INLs reporting that they gave a lot of support to their INAs versus 39 % in Rwanda. INAs in both Rwanda and Zambia reported promoting CVCT via group forums (77 %-97 %) and speaking to a community leader about CVCT (79 %-88 %) in the past month. More Rwandan INAs and INLs reported previous joint or individual HIV testing compared with their Zambian counterparts, of which more than half had not been tested. In Zambia and Rwanda, 1271 and 3895 CVCT clients were surveyed, respectively. Hearing about CVCT from INAs during one-on-one promotions was the most frequent source of information reported by clients in Zambia (71 %). In contrast, Rwandan couples who tested were more likely to have heard about CVCT from a previously tested couple (59 %). Conclusions: CVCT has long been endorsed for HIV prevention but few couples have been reached. Influential social networks can successfully promote evidence-based HIV prevention in Africa. Support from more senior INLs and group presentations leveraged INAs' one-on-one promotions. The INL/INA model was effective in promoting couples to seek joint HIV testing and counseling and may have broader application to other sub-Saharan African countries to sustainably increase CVCT uptake. © 2016 The Author(s).


Wall K.,Emory University | Karita E.,Project San Francisco PSF | Karita E.,Emory University | Nizam A.,Emory University | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify predictors of promotion of couples' HIV voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in Kigali, Rwanda. Design: Analysis of CVCT promotional agent [influential network leaders (INLs), influential network agents (INAs)], and couple/invitation-level predictors of CVCT uptake. Methods: Number of invitations and couples tested were evaluated by INL, INA, and couple/contextual factors. Multivariable logistic regression accounting for two-level clustering analyzed factors predictive of couples' testing. Results: Twenty-six INLs recruited and mentored 118 INAs who delivered 24 991 invitations. 4513 couples sought CVCT services after invitation. INAs distributed an average of 212 invitations resulting in an average of 38 couples tested/agent. Characteristics predictive of CVCT in multivariate analyses included the invitee and INA being socially acquainted [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2- 1.6]; invitations delivered after public endorsement (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5); and presence of a mobile testing unit (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.0-2.0). In stratified analyses, predictors significant among cohabiting couples included invitation delivery to the couple (aOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.4) and in the home (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), whereas among noncohabiting couples, predictors included invitations given by unemployed INAs (aOR=1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7). Cohabiting couples with oldermenweremore likely to test, whereas younger age was associated with testing among men in noncohabiting unions. Conclusions: Invitations distributed by influential people were successful in prompting couples to seek joint HIV testing, particularly if the invitation was given in the home to someone known to the INA and accompanied by a public endorsement of CVCT. Mobile units also increased the number of couples tested. Country-specific strategies to promote CVCT programs are needed to reduce HIV transmission among those at highest risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


PubMed | Zambia Emory HIV Research Project ZEHRP, Emory University and Project San Francisco PSF
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

Many African adults do not know that partners in steady or cohabiting relationships can have different HIV test results. Despite WHO recommendations for couples voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), fewer than 10% of couples have been jointly tested and counseled. We examine the roles and interactions of influential network leaders (INLs) and influential network agents (INAs) in promoting CVCT in Kigali, Rwanda and Lusaka, Zambia.INLs were identified in the faith-based, non-governmental, private, and health sectors. Each INL recruited and mentored several INAs who promoted CVCT. INLs and INAs were interviewed about demographic characteristics, promotional efforts, and working relationships. We also surveyed CVCT clients about sources of CVCT information.In Zambia, 53 INAs and 31 INLs were surveyed. In Rwanda, 33 INAs and 27 INLs were surveyed. Most (75%-90%) INAs believed that INL support was necessary for their promotional work. Zambian INLs reported being more engaged with their INAs than Rwandan INLs, with 58% of Zambian INLs reporting that they gave a lot of support to their INAs versus 39% in Rwanda. INAs in both Rwanda and Zambia reported promoting CVCT via group forums (77%-97%) and speaking to a community leader about CVCT (79%-88%) in the past month. More Rwandan INAs and INLs reported previous joint or individual HIV testing compared with their Zambian counterparts, of which more than half had not been tested. In Zambia and Rwanda, 1271 and 3895 CVCT clients were surveyed, respectively. Hearing about CVCT from INAs during one-on-one promotions was the most frequent source of information reported by clients in Zambia (71%). In contrast, Rwandan couples who tested were more likely to have heard about CVCT from a previously tested couple (59%).CVCT has long been endorsed for HIV prevention but few couples have been reached. Influential social networks can successfully promote evidence-based HIV prevention in Africa. Support from more senior INLs and group presentations leveraged INAs one-on-one promotions. The INL/INA model was effective in promoting couples to seek joint HIV testing and counseling and may have broader application to other sub-Saharan African countries to sustainably increase CVCT uptake.

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