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Prakash B.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Saha S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Khate K.,National Research Center on Mithun | Agarwal N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2013

Summary: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8months of age, 152±12.6kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3-N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p<0.05) higher in mithun fed R2, R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 diet. In contrast, increased (p<0.05) ruminal pH, molar proportion of acetate and, acetate to propionate ratio was recorded in mithun fed only TF than those fed concentrate supplemented diets. Similarly, an increase (p<0.05) in the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria were evident in mithun fed R2, R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1. Therefore, it is concluded that TF 25% and/or rice straw 25% along with CM 50% may be fed to the growing mithun for improved rumen ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Panda A.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Prakash B.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Rama Rao S.V.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Raju M.V.L.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Shyam Sunder G.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2013

Maize is the preferred energy cereal used in poultry feed formulations because of its high energy, low fibre and the presence of pigments and essential fatty acids. Consequently because it is a primary source of energy, due to its higher level of inclusion in poultry diets (60-70%), it contributes approximately 30% of the protein requirement of poultry. However, maize, like other cereals, is deficient in certain essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophan. Therefore, to meet the requirements of these essential amino acids, farmers and feed producers usually supplement poultry rations with synthetic amino acids. Quality protein maize (QPM), with almost double the lysine and tryptophan levels, is no different from that of normal maize (NM) in terms of the quantity of energy and protein it contains. Consequently, inclusion of QPM in poultry formulations will enable the feed manufacturer to produce feeds requiring minimal or no additional supplementation of crystalline amino acids particularly lysine and tryptophan. This review examines the available research on the nutritional value of QPM in poultry for its commercial exploitation as a feed material. Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2013. Source

Raju M.V.L.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Rao S.V.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry ICAR | Chakrabarti P.P.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Rao B.V.S.K.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | And 6 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2011

1. Rice bran lysolecithin (RBL) was evaluated in broiler chicken diets. In the first experiment, RBL was included in diet at 0, 0·5, 2, 8 and 32 g/kg and fed to 250 broiler chickens from 0 to 42 d of age. In the second experiment, RBL was fed at 0, 25 and 50 g/kg diet to 405 day-old broiler chickens until 21 d of age, while during the finisher phase (22-35 d of age) chickens receiving each concentration of RBL were given all three concentrations of RBL in a 3 × 3 factorial manner. The diets were isocaloric.2. Body weight, food consumption and food conversion efficiency were unaffected by feeding RBL, while the weight of pancreas increased at ≥2 g/kg of RBL in diet (experiment 1). In experiment 2, body weight was greater in the chickens receiving RBL at either 25 or 50 g/kg (21 d) and 50 g/kg (35 d of age). At 21 d of age, food consumption was greater at 25 or 50 g RBL/kg diet, while food conversion efficiency improved with 50 g RBL/kg diet.3. Fat digestibility increased with RBL at 32 g/kg (experiment 1) and ≤25 g/kg (experiment 2). Rice bran lysolecithin increased ready to cook weight at 50 g/kg during starter phase and decreased abdominal fat at 25 and 50 g/kg during finisher phase (experiment 2). Liver and meat fat content were not affected.4. It is concluded that lysolecithin from rice bran oil could be used as energy supplement in broiler chicken diet. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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