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Haunshi S.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Doley S.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Kadirvel G.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p ≤ 0. 01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p ≤ 0. 01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Bhattacharya T.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Chatterjee R.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

An experiment was carried out on myostatin gene with the objectives of identification of polymorphism in the myostatin gene and estimation of the effect of polymorphism on growth traits in chickens. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was performed to reveal polymorphism of the gene. A total of 13 haplotypes were observed across 3 chicken lines (PB-1 and CB as broiler lines and IWI as the layer line). Myostatin haplogroups had a significant effect on BW at 28, 42, and 49 d of age in the PB-1 line. The significant association of haplogroups was observed with BW at d 14 and 49 in the CB line. In the IWI layer line, the myostatin gene was polymorphic but had no significant association with growth traits. It is concluded that the myostatin gene was polymorphic and had a significant effect on growth traits in broiler chickens. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Ramasamy K.T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Verma P.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Murugesan S.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a multi-gene family, which plays a pivotal role in sensing invading pathogens by virtue of conserved microbial patterns. TLR repertoire of chicken and zebra finch has been well studied. However TLR family of other avian species is yet to be characterized. In the present study, we identified TLR repertoire of turkey, characterized avian specific receptor TLR15 in turkey and profiled the TLRs expressions in a range of tissues of turkey poults. All ten TLR genes orthologous to chicken TLR repertoire were found in turkey. Turkey TLR genes showed 81-93 % similarity at amino acid level to their chicken counter parts. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the orthologous relationship of turkey TLRs with chicken and zebra finch TLRs. Open reading frame of turkey TLR15 was 2,607 bp long encoding 868 amino acids similar to that of broiler chicken and showed 92.4, 91.1 and 69.5 % identity at amino acid levels with chicken, Japanese quail and zebra finch TLR15 sequences respectively. Overall TLR expression was highest for TLR4 and lowest for TLR21. TLR1A, 2A, 2B and 21 were significantly higher in liver than other tissues investigated (P < 0.01). TLR3 expression was significantly higher in bone marrow (BM) and spleen in comparison to other tissues studied (P < 0.01). Furthermore, no significant differences in the expression levels of TLR1B, 4, 5, 7 and 15 genes were detected among the tissues studied. Our findings contribute to the characterization of innate immune system of birds and show the innate preparedness of young turkey poults to a range of pathogens. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Rama Rao S.V.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Ravindran V.,Massey University | Panda A.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Raju M.V.L.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2011

Three experiments were conducted using White Leghorn layers (Babcock) from 21 to 72 wk of age to evaluate the effect of dietary ME (2,350 and 2,600 kcal/kg) and CP (15, 16.5, and 18%; experiment 1), and supplementation of low-CP diets with graded concentrations (0.65, 0.70, 0.75, and 0.80%) of lysine (experiment 2) or methionine (0.305, 0.335, 0.355, and 0.395%; experiment 3) on layer performance. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 8 replicate groups housed in an open-sided poultry house (22.0 to 35.5°C). Dietary concentrations of CP had no effect (P > 0.05) on egg production (EP), feed intake (FI), FE, egg weight, egg mass (EM), and BW, except the egg weight during the initial 3 periods, which was significantly lower in layers fed 15% CP. A higher (P < 0.05) rate of EP and higher FE and EM were observed in groups fed 2,600 kcal of ME compared with those fed 2,350 kcal of ME/kg. In experiment 2, EP, FI, and FE were not affected by dietary lysine concentrations, except for FI in period 7. Egg weight during the majority of periods and EM increased nonlinearly (P < 0.05 to 0.001) and linearly, respectively, with increasing dietary concentrations of lysine. Final BW increased linearly with increasing dietary lysine concentrations. In experiment 3, dietary methionine concentrations had no influence (P > 0.05) on EP. Feed intake decreased linearly and FE improved nonlinearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary concentrations of methionine. Egg weight increased nonlinearly with increasing methionine concentrations during periods 2, 8, and 9, and over the trial period. Dietary methionine concentrations did not influence EM (except during periods 2 and 8), shell defects, and BW. It was concluded, based on the data, that White Leghorn layers (21 to 72 wk) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70% lysine and 0.305% methionine in diets containing approximately 15% CP and 2,600 kcal of ME/kg while maintaining 16.5% CP during the initial phase of production for optimal egg size. © 2011 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source

Kannaki T.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Shanmugam M.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Verma P.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma R.P.,Project Directorate on Poultry
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules that initiate innate immune responses to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs. In response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), TLRs induce the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (ROI and RNI), inflammatory cytokines and up regulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, subsequently initiating adaptive immunity. Ten chicken TLR genes have been identified and their association with various diseases has been ascertained. This review concerns chicken toll-like receptors, their structure, expression, signalling, and their role in innate and adaptive immunity and disease resistance. It is concluded that TLR genes could be used as molecular markers for genetic selection for the improvement of disease resistance and TLR agonists as potential adjuvants in future vaccines. © 2010 World's Poultry Science Association. Source

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