Project Directorate on Poultry

Hyderabad, India

Project Directorate on Poultry

Hyderabad, India
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Rama Rao S.V.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Ravindran V.,Massey University | Panda A.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Raju M.V.L.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2011

Three experiments were conducted using White Leghorn layers (Babcock) from 21 to 72 wk of age to evaluate the effect of dietary ME (2,350 and 2,600 kcal/kg) and CP (15, 16.5, and 18%; experiment 1), and supplementation of low-CP diets with graded concentrations (0.65, 0.70, 0.75, and 0.80%) of lysine (experiment 2) or methionine (0.305, 0.335, 0.355, and 0.395%; experiment 3) on layer performance. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 8 replicate groups housed in an open-sided poultry house (22.0 to 35.5°C). Dietary concentrations of CP had no effect (P > 0.05) on egg production (EP), feed intake (FI), FE, egg weight, egg mass (EM), and BW, except the egg weight during the initial 3 periods, which was significantly lower in layers fed 15% CP. A higher (P < 0.05) rate of EP and higher FE and EM were observed in groups fed 2,600 kcal of ME compared with those fed 2,350 kcal of ME/kg. In experiment 2, EP, FI, and FE were not affected by dietary lysine concentrations, except for FI in period 7. Egg weight during the majority of periods and EM increased nonlinearly (P < 0.05 to 0.001) and linearly, respectively, with increasing dietary concentrations of lysine. Final BW increased linearly with increasing dietary lysine concentrations. In experiment 3, dietary methionine concentrations had no influence (P > 0.05) on EP. Feed intake decreased linearly and FE improved nonlinearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary concentrations of methionine. Egg weight increased nonlinearly with increasing methionine concentrations during periods 2, 8, and 9, and over the trial period. Dietary methionine concentrations did not influence EM (except during periods 2 and 8), shell defects, and BW. It was concluded, based on the data, that White Leghorn layers (21 to 72 wk) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70% lysine and 0.305% methionine in diets containing approximately 15% CP and 2,600 kcal of ME/kg while maintaining 16.5% CP during the initial phase of production for optimal egg size. © 2011 Poultry Science Association, Inc.


Kannaki T.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Shanmugam M.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Verma P.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma R.P.,Project Directorate on Poultry
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules that initiate innate immune responses to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs. In response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), TLRs induce the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (ROI and RNI), inflammatory cytokines and up regulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, subsequently initiating adaptive immunity. Ten chicken TLR genes have been identified and their association with various diseases has been ascertained. This review concerns chicken toll-like receptors, their structure, expression, signalling, and their role in innate and adaptive immunity and disease resistance. It is concluded that TLR genes could be used as molecular markers for genetic selection for the improvement of disease resistance and TLR agonists as potential adjuvants in future vaccines. © 2010 World's Poultry Science Association.


Bhattacharya T.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Chatterjee R.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Priyanka M.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The Pit-1 gene is involved in regulation of muscle growth through controlling the expression of growth hormone, prolactin, and transforming growth factor-β genes in chicken. The objectives of the study were to explore polymorphisms of the Pit-1 gene and to estimate the effect of these polymorphisms on growth traits in PB-1 and control (broiler strain) and IWI (layer strain) chickens. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was performed to reveal polymorphisms of the gene. In total, 10 haplotypes were found across the lines. The mRNA expression of Pit-1 varied among haplogroups and had a significant effect on BW and growth rates. The haplogroups showed a significant effect on BW in wk 7 in PB-1 chickens. In control chickens there was a significant effect at d 1 and in wk 2 and 7, and in IWI strains, there was a significant effect at d 1 and wk 6 and 7. The significant association of haplogroups and growth rate was found between 0 and 2 wk in control and between 0 and 2 and 6 and 7 wk in IWI strains. It was concluded that the Pit-1 gene is polymorphic and has a significant effect on growth traits in chickens. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Bhattacharya T.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Chatterjee R.N.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

An experiment was carried out on myostatin gene with the objectives of identification of polymorphism in the myostatin gene and estimation of the effect of polymorphism on growth traits in chickens. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was performed to reveal polymorphism of the gene. A total of 13 haplotypes were observed across 3 chicken lines (PB-1 and CB as broiler lines and IWI as the layer line). Myostatin haplogroups had a significant effect on BW at 28, 42, and 49 d of age in the PB-1 line. The significant association of haplogroups was observed with BW at d 14 and 49 in the CB line. In the IWI layer line, the myostatin gene was polymorphic but had no significant association with growth traits. It is concluded that the myostatin gene was polymorphic and had a significant effect on growth traits in broiler chickens. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Haunshi S.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Niranjan M.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Shanmugam M.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Padhi M.K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to characterize 2 important native chicken breeds from India and compare them on growth, production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits. The Aseel breed showed (P < 0.001) higher BW at different ages; higher shank, radius, and toe lengths at 40 wk of age; and greater egg weights at 28, 32, and 40 wk of age than did the Kadaknath breed. The Kadaknath breed reached sexual maturity at an early age, and it had higher 40-wk egg production (P< 0.001). Higher egg specific gravity (P< 0.05) and higher albumen (P < 0.001) and shell (P< 0.009) percentages in the Kadaknath were observed, whereas the Aseel breed had a higher yolk index (P <0.004), higher yolk percentage (P < 0.001), and higher yolk-to-albumen ratio (P < 0.001). Concentration of sperm (P < 0.01), live sperm counts (P < 0.05), and semen appearance scores (P < 0.05) were higher in theAseel breed than in the Kadaknath breed. The Aseel breed showed a greater incidence of feather-pecking behavior under floor rearing, and this was negligible or mild in the Kadaknath breed. Broodiness under cage rearing was observed (8.42%) in the Aseel breed. With regard to welfare traits, male Aseel birds had a significantly shorter (P < 0.05) duration of tonic immobility (TI) than did male Kadaknath birds. Furthermore, male Aseel birds had a shorter (P < 0.001) duration of TI than did female Aseel birds, whereas female Aseel birds had a longer (P < 0.05) duration of TI than did female and male Kadaknath birds. From this study, it was concluded that the breeds differed on various growth, production, egg and semen quality, and behavioral traits, but not on welfare traits, although female Aseel birds exhibited a greater fear response. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Ramasamy K.T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Verma P.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Murugesan S.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a multi-gene family, which plays a pivotal role in sensing invading pathogens by virtue of conserved microbial patterns. TLR repertoire of chicken and zebra finch has been well studied. However TLR family of other avian species is yet to be characterized. In the present study, we identified TLR repertoire of turkey, characterized avian specific receptor TLR15 in turkey and profiled the TLRs expressions in a range of tissues of turkey poults. All ten TLR genes orthologous to chicken TLR repertoire were found in turkey. Turkey TLR genes showed 81-93 % similarity at amino acid level to their chicken counter parts. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the orthologous relationship of turkey TLRs with chicken and zebra finch TLRs. Open reading frame of turkey TLR15 was 2,607 bp long encoding 868 amino acids similar to that of broiler chicken and showed 92.4, 91.1 and 69.5 % identity at amino acid levels with chicken, Japanese quail and zebra finch TLR15 sequences respectively. Overall TLR expression was highest for TLR4 and lowest for TLR21. TLR1A, 2A, 2B and 21 were significantly higher in liver than other tissues investigated (P < 0.01). TLR3 expression was significantly higher in bone marrow (BM) and spleen in comparison to other tissues studied (P < 0.01). Furthermore, no significant differences in the expression levels of TLR1B, 4, 5, 7 and 15 genes were detected among the tissues studied. Our findings contribute to the characterization of innate immune system of birds and show the innate preparedness of young turkey poults to a range of pathogens. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Shanmugam M.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Rajkumar U.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Rao S.V.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Animal Production Science | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of age on semen quality of naked neck and dwarf chicken lines under tropical climatic conditions. Semen collected by abdominal massage at 4-week intervals from 24 to 48 weeks of age was evaluated for different semen quality parameters. Except sperm concentration and appearance, all other parameters were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the age of the birds. The semen volume, motility, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction test and percentage of live sperm were significantly (P<0.05) lower at 24 weeks of age compared with 40 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age the dead sperm percentage was significantly (P<0.05) high and with advancing age it decreased. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the gene lines for volume, appearance, motility, sperm concentration, and percentage of live and dead sperm. Except for sperm concentration, significant (P<0.05) interaction between gene lines and age was observed in other parameters. In conclusion, semen quality was different between naked neck and dwarf line males and age affected semen quality of the gene lines studied in different manners. © 2012 CSIRO.


Gajula S.S.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Chelasani V.K.,Nutrition | Panda A.K.,Nutrition | Mantena V.L.N.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Savaram R.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction and main effects of supplemental Zn and Mn levels on growth, tissue mineral uptake, and immune response in broiler chicken. A basal diet of corn-soybean meal was supplemented with Zn at 40, 80, or 160 ppm and Mn at 60, 120, or 240 ppm in a factorial pattern to constitute nine experimental diets. Each diet was offered to nine replicates of six chicks in stainless steel battery brooders. At 35 days of age, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, hock joint scores, tibia weight, tibia strength, and percent ash were not influenced by Zn and Mn levels and their interactions. The concentration of Zn (207-238 ppm) and Mn (11.8-16.3 ppm) in tibia increased linearly with progressive raise of mineral inclusion in diets. Mn at 240 ppm level caused higher retention of Zn in tibia, but not vice versa. Manganese either alone or in combination with Zn (Zn160/Mn120 ppm) significantly reduced Cu retention (10.1-7.2 ppm) in tibia. Even in the hepatic tissue, Zn (93.6-98.4 ppm) and Mn (9.3-10.2 ppm) concentration increased linearly with their levels of inclusion in diets. When Zn and Mn levels were maintained at 4:3 ratio (80:60 or 160:120 ppm), the concentration of Zn (100-106 ppm) in liver was higher, while that of Mn was significantly more with low level of Zn (40 ppm) in diet. However, Mn supplementation at 120 ppm level and above significantly decreased Cu accumulation (19.5-17.1 ppm) in liver, but Mn × Zn interaction had no effect on Cu retention. The immune response measured as antibody titers to sheep RBC increased (5.9-7.9 log2) significantly with higher Zn (80 ppm) supplementation and cell-mediated immune response to phytohemagglutinin (0.57-0.78) with Mn level at 120 ppm. In summary, Zn (40 ppm) and Mn (60 ppm) as recommended by NRC was sufficient for broiler performance and bone parameters. Mn complimented Zn retention in tibia and antagonized Cu in tibia and liver tissues. Higher levels of Zn (80 ppm) and Mn (120 ppm) than those recommended by NRC were needed for improved immune response in broilers at 35 days of age. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Rajkumar U.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Reddy M.R.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Rama Rao S.V.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Radhika K.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Shanmugam M.,Project Directorate on Poultry
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The performance of naked neck and normal chicken was evaluated with respect to growth, carcass, immune, biochemical and stress parameters under winter and summer seasons to assess the suitability of naked neck birds under high temperatures in the global scenario of climate change. The growth performance was significantly (p≤0.05) higher in naked neck chicken in the summer season. The dressing percentage was significantly (p≤0.05) higher in naked neck birds in both winter and summer season because of reduced plumage. The thigh, giblet and feather proportion significantly (p≤0.05) varied between naked neck and normal chickens in summer season. The humeral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH) did not show any significant differences among the chicken groups. The protein and cholesterol concentration observed was within the normal ranges. The total cholesterol levels in plasma were significantly (p≤0.05) lower in naked neck birds in both the seasons. H:L ratio was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in summer season indicating less stress in naked neck chicken. Basophil and eosinophil concentration was significantly (p≤0.05) higher in normal chicken in summer. The lipid peroxidation was higher in full feathered birds under summer stress. The enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) levels were significantly higher during the summer and varied significantly (p≤0.05) between the normal and naked neck chicken in both seasons. The results indicated that the naked neck birds performed significantly better at high ambient temperatures with respect to growth, carcass and biochemical parameters. It was concluded that the ability of the naked neck chicken to adapt to high temperatures foresees a viable option for the biological mitigation of climate change.


Haunshi S.,Project Directorate on Poultry | Doley S.,Icar Research Complex For Neh Region | Kadirvel G.,Icar Research Complex For Neh Region
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p ≤ 0. 01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p ≤ 0. 01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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