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Biswal J.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Ranjan R.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Pattnaik B.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Biologicals | Year: 2016

Detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of FMD-infected animals in the vaccinated population. Nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to NSPs, the likelihood of screening or confirming the FMD infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple NSPs is considered for diagnosis. In order to develop and evaluate an additional NSP-based diagnostic assay, in this study, the recombinant 3A protein of FMDV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for detection of FMD infection specific antibodies. At the fixed cut-off value of 45 percentage of positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 3A indirect-ELISA (I-ELISA) were found to be 95.7% and 96.3%, respectively. In FMD naturally infected cattle, about 85% of clinically infected and 75% of asymptomatic in-contact populations were found positive at 13 months post-outbreak. The 3A I-ELISA was further evaluated with the bovine serum samples collected randomly from different parts of the country. Furthermore, the performance of newly developed 3A I-ELISA was compared with the extensively used in-house r3AB3 I-ELISA, and the overall concordance in test results was found to be 93.62%. The r3A I-ELISA could be useful as a screening or confirmatory assay in the sero-surveillance of FMD in India irrespective of extensive bi-annual vaccination. © 2016 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source


Biswal J.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Ranjan R.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Pattnaik B.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine whether the G–H loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O can function as a target structure to harbour and display serotype Asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface. Results: Using reverse genetics, FMDV serotype O IND R2/1975 displaying a FMDV serotype Asia1 B cell epitope at the capsid surface was constructed. The epitope-inserted recombinant chimeric virus was genetically stable up to ten serial passages in cell culture and exhibited growth properties similar to the parental serotype O virus. Furthermore, the surface-displayed Asia1 epitope able to react with serotype Asia1 specific antibodies in a competitive ELISA. Importantly, the recombinant chimeric virus showed neutralizing activity to both serotype O and Asia1 polyclonal antibodies. Conclusion: The capsid protein of FMDV serotype O can effectively display potent epitope of other serotypes, making this an attractive approach for the design of new generation bi-valent FMD vaccines. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Subramaniam S.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Das B.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sharma G.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 was first reported in India in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (B, C and D) of this serotype have been described until now. In this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype Asia1 viruses (n = 99) from India were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. All of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage C (designated as sublineage CR). The evolutionary rate of sublineage CR was estimated to be slightly higher than that of the serotype as a whole, and the time of the most recent common ancestor for this cluster was estimated to be approximately 2001. In comparison to the older isolates of lineage C (1993-2001), the re-emerging viruses showed variation at eight amino acid positions, including substitutions at the antigenically critical residues VP279 and VP2131. However, no direct correlation was found between sequence variations and antigenic relationships. The number of codons under positive selection and the nature of the selection pressure varied widely among the structural proteins, implying a heterogeneous pattern of evolution in serotype Asia1. While episodic diversifying selection appears to play a major role in shaping the evolution of VP1 and VP3, selection pressure acting on codons of VP2 is largely pervasive. Further, episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for the early diversification of lineage C. Recombination events identified in the structural protein coding region indicates its probable role in adaptive evolution of serotype Asia1 viruses. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Biswal J.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Subramaniam S.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Ranjan R.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sharma G.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 2 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India. © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source


Biswal J.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Subramaniam S.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sharma G.K.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mahajan S.,ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 3 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the selection of appropriate candidate vaccine strain and its adaptation in cell culture to yield high titer of virus is a cumbersome process. An attractive approach to circumvent this tedious process is to replace the capsid coding sequence of an infectious full-genome length cDNA clone of a good vaccine strain with those of appropriate field strain, to produce custom-made chimeric FMD virus (FMDV). Nevertheless, the construction of chimeric virus can be difficult if the necessary endonuclease restriction sites are unavailable or unsuitable for swapping of the capsid sequence. Here we described an efficient method based on megaprimer-mediated capsid swapping for the construction of chimeric FMDV cDNA clones. Using FMDV vaccine strain A IND 40/2000 infectious clone (pA40/2000) as a donor plasmid, we exchanged the capsid sequence of pA40/2000 with that of the viruses belonging to serotypes O (n = 5), A (n = 2), and Asia 1 (n = 2), and subsequently generated infectious FMDV from their respective chimeric cDNA clones. The chimeric viruses exhibited comparable infection kinetics, plaque phenotypes, antigenic profiles, and virion stability to the parental viruses. The results from this study suggest that megaprimer-based reverse genetics technology is useful for engineering chimeric vaccine strains for use in the control and prevention of FMD in endemic countries. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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