Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease

Mukteswar, India

Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease

Mukteswar, India

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Pandey L.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 2 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

In this study, the Indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine strain (A IND 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (BCS) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. A considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the BCS for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. T143K substitution preceding the integrin binding 'RGD'-motif in the βG-βH loop of VP1 was found to be selected consistently and exclusively under immune pressure. By virtue of its location within an immunodominant site, sequence heterogeneity observed in the field viruses and residues already mapped in the neutralizing monoclonal antibody resistant mutants, position 143 in VP1 was predicted to be a critical residue of an important neutralizing epitope in serotype A FMDV. Using next-generation sequencing approach, the gradual overtaking of the originally dominating major variant by a minor one under a selective environment could be demonstrated. In the control passage regimen, VP2 E131K substitution was fixed within the heparan sulfate binding pocket probably as a result of adaptation to use alternative cellular receptors. But at the same time, these substitutions arising under selection forces other than immune pressure changed the antigenic behaviour of the virus inadvertently. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Hemadri D.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Pattnaik B.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype A Indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. Overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. Chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in S and L fragment of 5′-UTR. More variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in L and 3A region. Functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. Polyprotein cleavage sites accepted few changes. Many sites were detected to be under positive selection in L, P1, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D region and of which some are functionally important and antigenically critical. Genotype/lineage specific signature residues could be identified which implies evolution under different selection pressure. Transmembrane domain could be predicted in 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3C proteins in agreement with their membrane binding properties. Phylogenetic analysis at complete coding region placed the isolates in genotype IV, VI, and VII and two broad clusters comprising VP3 59-deletion and non-deletion group within genotypes VII. The VP3 59-deletion group has diversified genetically with time giving rise to three lineages. Incongruence in tree topology observed for different non structural protein coding region and UTRs-based phylogeny indicate suspected recombination. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Das B.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease | Pattnaik B.,Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

In recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in India are caused by serotype O Ind2001 lineage. The lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (Ind2001a, b, c and d). We report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine Ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during April 2013-March 2014 in India. The length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. Of the nine isolates analyzed antigenically against the currently used Indian vaccine strain INDR2/1975, eight showed good cross serological match (>0.3) indicating optimal antigenic coverage by the vaccine strain. An unprecedented deletion of 22 nucleotides between position 57 and 78 was observed in the 3' untranslated region of one of the isolates without compromising the virus viability, which imply that partial distortion in SL2 of 3'UTR may not have influence on virus viability at least under in-vitro conditions. Recently the Ind2001 lineage has been reported from several countries including Libya and spread of this lineage across a wide geographical area needs to be monitored carefully to avoid any future pandemic. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sharma G.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 8 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

In India, emergence of Ind2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O was recorded in the year 2001. After causing sporadic incidences, the Ind2001 lineage that re-surged in 2008 out-competed PanAsia from the field during 2009 and continued its dominance during 2010 and 2011 as well. The lineage has diversified in due course of time, leading to two sub-lineages (Ind2001a and Ind2001b). The sub-lineage Ind2001a include isolates collected during 2001-2002 and sub-lineage Ind2001b is constituted largely by isolates collected during 2008-2012. The nucleotide substitution rate of sub-lineage Ind2001b was estimated at 6.58×10-3 substitutions/site/year. The most stable PanAsia lineage is restricted only to few outbreaks. During 2011, emergence of a new genetic group with >9% nucleotide divergence from rest of the lineages circulating in the country was detected and named as lineage Ind2011. Two specific amino acid substitutions at positions VP1-36 (F) and VP2-133 (T) were observed in the Ind2011 lineage. The new lineage at present is restricted only to southern states of the country. It is uncertain whether the emergence was triggered by immune pressure or due to a bottleneck in transmission or selected for higher fitness value. Six sites (4, 68, 83, 135, 138 and 209) in VP1 protein were identified to undergo episodic diversifying selection in serotype O field isolates. Both emerging and re-emerging lineages had appropriate antigenic match with currently used vaccine strain, INDR2/1975. Irrespective of genetic variability, the field isolates showed remarkable conservation at antigenically critical residues that might contribute to the observed antigenic stability. With the emergence of a new genetic group after a span of 10years, the overall epidemiological scenario in the region is expected to change in the coming years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mittal M.,Central Military Veterinary Laboratory CMVL | Chakravarti S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Chug P.K.,Central Military Veterinary Laboratory CMVL | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), which emerged in 1978, is considered as the major viral enteric pathogen of the canine population. With the emergence of new antigenic variants and incidences of vaccine failure, CPV has become one of the dreaded diseases of the canines worldwide. The present study was undertaken in an organized kennel from North India to ascertain the molecular basis of the CPV outbreaks in the vaccinated dogs. 415 samples were collected over a 5. year period (2008-2012). The outbreak of the disease was more severe in 2012 with high incidence of mortality in pups with pronounced clinical symptoms. Molecular typing based on the VP2 gene was carried out with the 11 isolates from different years and compared with the CPV prototype and the vaccine strains. All the isolates in the study were either new CPV-2a (2012 isolates) or new CPV-2b (2008 and 2011 isolates). There were amino acid mutations at the Tyr324Ile and at the Thr440Ala position in five isolates from 2012 indicating new CPV mutants spreading in India. The CPV vaccines used in the present study failed to generate protective antibody titer against heterogeneous CPV antigenic types. The findings were confirmed when the affected pups were treated with hyper-immune heterogeneous purified immunoglobulin's against CPV in dogs of different antigenic types. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Mahapatra M.,The Pirbright Institute | Yuvaraj S.,Indian Immunologicals Ltd | Madhanmohan M.,Indian Immunologicals Ltd | Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. © 2014 The Authors.


Sarangi L.N.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Pattnaik B.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is constantly evolving under neutralizing antibody pressure in either naturally infected or vaccinated animals. This study was carried out to understand the dynamics of evolution of antigenic sites. Neutralizing antibody-resistant populations of three strains of FMDV serotype O (INDR2/1975, IND120/2002 and IND271/2001) were isolated by serial propagation in BHK-21 cells in the presence of sub-neutralizing level of bovine vaccinal sera (BVS). In the partial neutralization escape variants, fixation of aa substitutions were observed at critical residues of all established antigenic sites of serotype O {144 of VP1 (site 1), 45 and 48 of VP1 (site 3), 72 and 134 of VP2 (Site 2)} except site 4 and 5. In majority of the variant populations, site 3 was found to be substituted and therefore immunodominance may not be associated with a particular site, rather it appears to be a virus strain and infected host specific affair. Substitutions were also observed in proximity to the identified residues {41 and 51 (βB-βC loop), 133, 140 and 143 (βG-βH loop), 201, 204 and 209 (C terminus) of VP1, 71 and 75 (βB-βC loop), 131 (βE-αB region), 174 and 179 (βG-βH loop) and 219 (C terminus) of VP3} within antigenic sites of serotype O or other serotypes which could be significant in terms of neutralizing antibody binding and immune escape. Presence of similar residues in the Indian field viruses as selected in the variants supports the importance of these sites in antigenic diversification of serotype O FMD virus. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of general virology | Year: 2015

In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2) consistently gained positively charged amino acids in the putative heparin-sulfate-binding pocket (VP2 E-F loop, VP1 C-terminus and VP3 -B knob) surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis (VP1 F-G loop) and at other discrete sites on the capsid (VP3 G-H loop, VP1 C-terminus, VP2 C strand and VP1 G-H loop). A lysine insertion in the VP1 F-G loop of two of the BHK-21-adapted viruses supports the biological advantage of positively charged residues acquired in cell culture. The charge transitions occurred irrespective of cell line, suggesting their possible role in ionic interaction with ubiquitous negatively charged cell-surface molecules such as glycosaminoglycans (GAG). This was supported by the ability of the cell-culture-adapted variants to replicate in the integrin-deficient, GAG-positive CHO-K1 cells and their superior fitness in competition assays compared with the lower passage viruses with WT genotypes. Substitutions fixed in the VP1 G-H loop (-3, -2 and +2 RGD positions) or in the structural element known to be juxtaposed against that loop (VP1 B-C loop) suggest their possible role in modulating the efficiency and specificity of interaction of the RGD motif with v-integrin receptors. The nature and location of the substitutions described in this study could be applied in the rapid cell culture adaptation of viral strains for vaccine production.


PubMed | Project Directorate on Foot and mouth Disease
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

In recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in India are caused by serotype O Ind2001 lineage. The lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (Ind2001a, b, c and d). We report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine Ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during April 2013-March 2014 in India. The length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. Of the nine isolates analyzed antigenically against the currently used Indian vaccine strain INDR2/1975, eight showed good cross serological match (>0.3) indicating optimal antigenic coverage by the vaccine strain. An unprecedented deletion of 22 nucleotides between position 57 and 78 was observed in the 3 untranslated region of one of the isolates without compromising the virus viability, which imply that partial distortion in SL2 of 3UTR may not have influence on virus viability at least under in-vitro conditions. Recently the Ind2001 lineage has been reported from several countries including Libya and spread of this lineage across a wide geographical area needs to be monitored carefully to avoid any future pandemic.


PubMed | Indian Immunologicals Ltd, Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease and The Pirbright Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences.

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