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Mittal M.,Central Military Veterinary Laboratory CMVL | Chakravarti S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Chug P.K.,Central Military Veterinary Laboratory CMVL | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), which emerged in 1978, is considered as the major viral enteric pathogen of the canine population. With the emergence of new antigenic variants and incidences of vaccine failure, CPV has become one of the dreaded diseases of the canines worldwide. The present study was undertaken in an organized kennel from North India to ascertain the molecular basis of the CPV outbreaks in the vaccinated dogs. 415 samples were collected over a 5. year period (2008-2012). The outbreak of the disease was more severe in 2012 with high incidence of mortality in pups with pronounced clinical symptoms. Molecular typing based on the VP2 gene was carried out with the 11 isolates from different years and compared with the CPV prototype and the vaccine strains. All the isolates in the study were either new CPV-2a (2012 isolates) or new CPV-2b (2008 and 2011 isolates). There were amino acid mutations at the Tyr324Ile and at the Thr440Ala position in five isolates from 2012 indicating new CPV mutants spreading in India. The CPV vaccines used in the present study failed to generate protective antibody titer against heterogeneous CPV antigenic types. The findings were confirmed when the affected pups were treated with hyper-immune heterogeneous purified immunoglobulin's against CPV in dogs of different antigenic types. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mahapatra M.,The Pirbright Institute | Yuvaraj S.,Indian Immunologicals Ltd | Madhanmohan M.,Indian Immunologicals Ltd | Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Anil K.U.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sreenivasa B.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2012

Sequence variability within the capsid coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus type A vaccine strain during serial in vitro passage was investigated. Specifically, two methods of virus propagation were utilized, a monolayer and suspension culture of BHK-21 cells. At three positions (VP2131 E-K in both monolayer and suspension passages, VP385 H-R in late monolayer passages and VP3139 K-E in only suspension passages), all mapped to surface exposed loops, amino acid substitutions were apparently fixed without reversion till the end of the passage regime. Interestingly, VP2131, 121 and VP385 which form part of the heparan sulphate binding pocket, showed a tendency to acquire positively charged amino acids in either monolayer or suspension environment probably to better interact with the negatively charged cell surface glycosaminoglycans. At three identified antigenically critical positions (VP279, VP3139 and VP1154), amino acids substitutions even in the absence of immune pressure were noticed. Hence both random drift and adaptive mutations attributable to the strong selective pressure exerted by the proposed cell surface alternate receptors could play a role in modifying the capsid sequence of cell culture propagated FMDV vaccine virus, which in turn may alter the desired potency of the vaccine formulations. © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source

Gowane G.R.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sharma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sankar M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Narayanan K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease and a whole-virus inactivated trivalent virus vaccine is the mainstay for controlling the disease in India. The protective humoral immune response to FMD vaccination is a complex, but, tightly regulated process mediated by the interplay of interleukins (IL). Based on the specific role of IL6 and 21 in adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that inactivated trivalent FMD vaccine would stimulate IL6 and 21 expression in the circulating lymphocytes. The expressions of IL6 and 21 were assayed on 0, 28, 60, 90, and 120 d post-vaccination (DPV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with simultaneous assessment of FMDV antibody titer by liquid phase blocking ELISA. The results revealed that the peak expression of IL6 and 21 was on DPV 28 which correlated well with the FMDV antibody titer and plummeted to the prevaccination titer level by 60 DPV. As IL21 is the final effector of antibody production as compared to IL6, we investigated the expression of IL21 in calves that had protective titer (>1.8) with the unprotected group (<1.8). Expression of IL21 on 28 DPV was numerically higher in the protected than that of the unprotected group of calves. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Hemadri D.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Pattnaik B.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype A Indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. Overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. Chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in S and L fragment of 5′-UTR. More variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in L and 3A region. Functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. Polyprotein cleavage sites accepted few changes. Many sites were detected to be under positive selection in L, P1, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D region and of which some are functionally important and antigenically critical. Genotype/lineage specific signature residues could be identified which implies evolution under different selection pressure. Transmembrane domain could be predicted in 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3C proteins in agreement with their membrane binding properties. Phylogenetic analysis at complete coding region placed the isolates in genotype IV, VI, and VII and two broad clusters comprising VP3 59-deletion and non-deletion group within genotypes VII. The VP3 59-deletion group has diversified genetically with time giving rise to three lineages. Incongruence in tree topology observed for different non structural protein coding region and UTRs-based phylogeny indicate suspected recombination. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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