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Alex R.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Kunniyoor Cheemani R.,Center for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics and Breeding | Thomas N.,Center for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics and Breeding
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

A stochastic frontier production function was employed to measure technical efficiency and its determinants in smallholder Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India. Data were obtained from 100 goat farmers in northern Kerala, selected using multistage random sampling. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Cost and return analysis showed that the major expenditure was feed and fodder, and veterinary expenses were secondary. The chief returns were the sale of live animals, milk and manure. Individual farm technical efficiency ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.88. The study found herd size (number of animal units) and centre (locality of farm) significantly affected technical efficiency, but sex of farmer, education, land size and family size did not. Technical efficiency decreased as herd size increased; half the units with five or more adult animals had technical efficiency below 60 %. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Panigrahi M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma A.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Bhushan B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Deb R.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Sajjanar B.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Devi K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Reddy K.M.,The Academy of Management | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Genetically modified (GM) crops with higher yields and better quality are currently being used in the feeds of livestock and fishes. Despite the advantages, there are concerns about GM-feeds including their effect on animal health, performance and safety of the consumers of animal products like milk, meat, egg and fish. Studies are conducted to assess the feeding efficiency of GM-crops in livestock feeds. The safety aspects of these feeds are also examined in considerable number of experiments. Results from some of the feeding trials indicate that GM-crops are substantially equivalent in terms of composition, digestibility and feeding value. Transfer of transgenic DNA and protein from GM-crops to animal products is a critical safety concern that is also being examined. In the present article, efforts have been made to review different safety concerns of GM-feeds in livestock and fishes. Source


Maurya S.K.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Mathur A.K.,Project Directorate on Cattle
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

Ten normal adult healthy cyclic Frieswal cows were utilized for this study. These animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each. Superovulation was induced in the first group by utilizing 280 mg of NIH-FSH P, in 8 divided doses given in 4 days. In the second group PMSG was utilized @ 1500 IU/animal as a single i/m injection. All the 10 animals were given injection of PGF 2α (PG) @ 0.7 mg after 66 hrs of FSH/PMSG injection for induction of oestrus and were subsequently inseminated with frozen thawed semen. The blood samples were collected for the estimation of oestradial 17β and progesterone at the end of natural oestrus, prior to superovulatory treatment, just before PG injection and at the end of induced oestrus. The mean oestradiol 17β concentration estimated just before the start of superovulation treatment were 163 ± 37.20 and 149 ± 47.54 pg/ml whereas the concentrations of progesterone were 4.95 ± 1.53 and 4.45 ± 1.48 ng/ml in 1 and 2 superovulatory treatment groups respectively. It was observed that after 60 h of start of superovulatory treatment the levels of estradiol 17β were 109 ± 40.70 and 90 ± 30.78 pg/ml in group 1 and 2, these values at the end of induced oestrus were 148.0 ± 54.4 and 85.0 ± 29.88 pg/ml in group 1 and 2. Similarly, mean progesterone concentrations after 60 h of start of superovulatory treatment were 4.28 ± 1.9 and 4.19 ± 0.99 ng/ml in groups 1 and 2, which were 2.91 ± 0.83 and 3.65 ± 1.58 ng/ml at the end of induced oestrus. Here also levels were showing lower trend on compared to mean values obtained just before the start of experiment (i.e. 4.8 ± 2.12 and 4.9 ±2.01 ng/ml). Source


Kumar A.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Kumar S.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Singh U.,Project Directorate on Cattle | Beniwal B.K.,Project Directorate on Cattle
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2014

The present study was under taken on calving records of 1024 Frieswal cows (a new strain of Holestein Friesian X Sahiwal) maintained at Military Dairy Farm, Meerut, born during1987 to 2000 and maintained over a period of 21years i.e. up to 2007. The average total herd life and total productive herd life were observed 6.43± 0.09 and 3.81± 0.12 years for this herd. It was observed that only 2.3 per cent cows have attained the highest longevity of more than 12 years and about 80 per cent cows left the herd before completion of 6 years of their herd life either due to culling or death. Most of the female calves attained their age at first calving before 3 years of age with average age at first calving was 2.67± 0.07 years. Average number of total alive calves produced and total female calves produced by each cow during her stay in the herd were 2.71± 0.07 and 1.32± 0.05 calves, respectively. About one fourth (24.7%) cows left the herd after giving one calf and about 7% cows produced 8 or more calves during their herd life. There was an increasing trend for the total calves born with the increase in the first lactation milk yield (FLMY), higher milk producing cows produced significantly more number of calves as compared to low milk producers. Source

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