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Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Singh R.K.,National Research Center on Equines | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

In this study, we investigated a goat pox outbreak that occurred in an organized goat farm in a village named Yerenda near Akola, Maharashtra, India during 2007-2008. The outbreak involved in 175 goats including kids of local nondescript breeds with a morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rate, respectively, of 20%, 11.4%, and 60%. The goat pox virus (GTPV) antigen/nucleic acid in the clinical samples was detected by CIE and PCRs whereas virus-specific antibody was detected by using SNT and indirect ELISA. From classical clinical signs coupled with epidemiological details and various diagnostic assays, the causative agent of the outbreaks, GTPV was identified, successfully isolated in Vero cells and characterized. Further, sequence analysis of P32 envelope protein gene revealed that this isolate phylogenetically related closely to Chinese strain. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Balamurugan V.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Balamurugan V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sen A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

In this study, three outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats and sheep flocks with high morbidity and considerable mortality were recorded at Jhansi and Revati in Uttar Pradesh and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, India during 2003-2006. Clinical samples were collected from the affected flocks for laboratory investigation. The PPR virus (PPRV) antigen/nucleic acid in the infected tissues/swab materials was demonstrated by using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction techniques, and the antibody to PPRV in serum samples was detected by competitive ELISA. The causative agent of the outbreaks, PPRV, was successfully isolated in Vero cells at first passage itself, and its identity was confirmed. The isolated PPR viruses belong to lineage IV based on phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion gene sequences and are closely related to other Asian or Indian PPRV isolates/strains. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Mazumder Y.,Epsilon Institution of Clinical science | Kar D.,Assam University | Shome B.R.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Dutta B.K.,Assam University | Rahman H.,Epsilon Institution of Clinical science
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: Bordetella bronchiseptica is an etiologic agent of bronchopneumonia and progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) in swine. Both toxigenic and nontoxigenic B. bronchiseptica strains have been associated with bronchopneumonia. Monitoring and investigation of outbreaks involving these bacteria require sensitive and accurate identification and reliable determination of the isolates. In the present study, we report the development, optimization and performance characteristics of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. bronchiseptica strains. Methodology and Results: A total of 47 isolates of B. bronchiseptica were biochemically identified from 90 pigs suffering from bronchopneumonia maintained in a semi intensive rearing system of organized piggery in Meghalaya. PCR was employed with filamentous hemagglutinin toxin genes (fhaB and fhaC) and fimbrial toxin genes (fim2 and fim3) primers to identify the specific toxin types of B. bronchiseptica. All the 47 isolates were positive for all the toxin genes. The specifity of designed primer pairs was tested by screening some common bacterial species related to the respiratory tract namely, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. No DNA amplifications of the organisms tested could be seen in the specificity test. Amplicon mobility in agarose gels indicate the amplicons are highly stable. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The data presented, establish this PCR as a reliable method for identification and study of adhesins of B. bronchiseptica that may greatly simplify investigations of swine bronchopneumonia and PAR for Indian isolates.


Bhatia S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Patil S.S.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Sood R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2013

The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a lentivirus which is known to infect cattle worldwide. Though serological and genomic evidence of BIV in cattle has been found throughout the world, isolation of the virus has been reported only from few places. Very little is known about its impact on animal health status, pathogenesis and mode of transmission. BIV is considered generally non-pathogenic and is not known to cause any serious disease in cattle. BIV is genetically and antigenically related to Jembrana disease virus (JDV), the cause of an acute disease in Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) and human immunodeficiency virus, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in human. Therefore, it is important to monitor the presence of BIV in cattle to keep vigil over its possible evolution in its natural host to emerge as pathogenic lentivirus like JDV. Differentiation of BIV infection in cattle from the acutely pathogenic JDV is important for diagnosis of the latter. Currently, BIV is considered as a safe model for understanding the complex genome of lentiviruses. Further research on BIV is indeed needed to elucidate its possible role in animal health as well as for insight into the molecular mechanisms adopted by related lentiviruses. © Indian Virological Society 2013.


Balamurugan V.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Hemadri D.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Gajendragad M.R.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS | Singh R.K.,National Research Center on Equines | Rahman H.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, world organization for animal health (OIE) notifiable and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality and caused by PPR virus. PPR is considered as one of the main constraints in augmenting the productivity of small ruminants in developing countries and particularly severely affects poor farmer's economy. The disease is clinically manifested by pyrexia, oculo-nasal discharges, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea and bronchopneumonia. The disease can be diagnosed from its clinical signs, pathological lesions, and specific detection of virus antigen/antibodies/genome in the clinical samples by various serological tests and molecular assays. PPR is the one of the priority animal diseases whose control is considered important for poverty alleviation in enzootic countries. Availability of effective and safe live attenuated cell culture PPR vaccines and diagnostics have boosted the recently launched centrally sponsored control programme in India and also in other countries. This review article primarily focus on the current scenario of PPR diagnosis and its control programme with advancement of research areas that have taken place in the recent years with future perspectives. © 2013 Indian Virological Society.

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