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Subramaniam S.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Mohapatra J.K.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease | Hemadri D.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Pattnaik B.,Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype A Indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. Overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. Chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in S and L fragment of 5′-UTR. More variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in L and 3A region. Functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. Polyprotein cleavage sites accepted few changes. Many sites were detected to be under positive selection in L, P1, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D region and of which some are functionally important and antigenically critical. Genotype/lineage specific signature residues could be identified which implies evolution under different selection pressure. Transmembrane domain could be predicted in 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3C proteins in agreement with their membrane binding properties. Phylogenetic analysis at complete coding region placed the isolates in genotype IV, VI, and VII and two broad clusters comprising VP3 59-deletion and non-deletion group within genotypes VII. The VP3 59-deletion group has diversified genetically with time giving rise to three lineages. Incongruence in tree topology observed for different non structural protein coding region and UTRs-based phylogeny indicate suspected recombination. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Sen A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Saravanan P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Saravanan P.,Institute for Animal Health | Balamurugan V.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 5 more authors.
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2010

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease affecting goats, sheep and wild ruminants. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. Current control of the disease mainly includes isolation and disinfection of the contaminated environment, and administration of a live-attenuated vaccine, which provides a strong immunity. Maintenance of cold chain for vaccine efficacy has proven difficult in subtropical countries. A thermostable live-attenuated conventional or recombinant vaccine is a way to avoid cold chain-associated problems in tropical and subtropical countries. Mass vaccination of sheep and goats in endemic countries might be a pragmatic approach to control PPR in the first phase of disease eradication. In the future, the development of a marker vaccine with a robust companion test may help in serosurveillance to identify infection in vaccinated animals to control PPR disease. Here, we discuss available potent PPR vaccines and the future possibility of developing new-generation vaccines against PPR. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


Prabhu M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Siva Sankar M.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2012

In the present study, SYBR Green and TaqMan real time PCRs (rt-PCR) based on the C18L gene (encodes ankyrin repeat protein) of camelpox (CMLV) and buffalopox viruses (BPXV) were, respectively employed for potency evaluation of live attenuated camelpox and buffalopox vaccines. Cells infected with the respective vaccine viruses were harvested at critical time points and subjected to respective PCRs. The critical time points of harvests for CMLV and BPXV respectively, were 36 and 30h post infection and were respectively determined based on maximum slopes of (-3.324) and (-3.321) standard curves. On evaluation of eight batches of camelpox and seven batches of buffalopox vaccines, the results indicated that the titres estimated by respective rt-PCRs were well comparable to the conventional TCID50 method. The rt-PCR assays were found relatively more sensitive, specific and rapid than end point dilution assay. Thus, they could be used as additional tools for estimation of live CMLV and BPXV particles in camelpox and buffalopox vaccines. © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source


Govindaraj G.N.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Suryaprakash S.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance
Ecology of Food and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kumar A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Avasthe R.K.,CSWCRTI | Rameash K.,NBPGR Regional Station | Pandey B.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Field experiments were conducted during 2005-09 at ICAR Sikkim Centre, Tadong, East Sikkim, India at an altitude of 1400. m. amsl to identify the suitable environment for high production of good quality fruits with less diseases for strawberry varieties Ofra and Chandler. Both the varieties were grown under low cost polyhouse, plastic tunnel and open conditions. Maximum number of flower trusses per plant was recorded in Chandler under open condition (13.0) followed by plastic tunnel (12.7). The maximum number of fruits per inflorescence was found in Ofra (7.12) under polyhouse while maximum number of runners per plant was observed in Ofra (12.3) in open conditions. Plastic tunnel with Ofra produced highest fruit weight (26.2. g), fruit length (5.5. cm) and fruit diameter (3.9. cm). Best fruit quality in terms of TSS (6.8%), lower acidity (0.83%) and total sugar (6.3%) was observed in Chandler under plastic tunnel conditions. The highest total fruit yield was recorded with Ofra under plastic tunnel (40.2. t/ha) but the maximum marketable yield was obtained in Chandler under plastic tunnel (35.3. t/ha). Diseases were found to be less prevalent in tunnel as compared to polyhouse and open conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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