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Gill M.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Gangwar B.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research | Walia S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Dhawan A.K.,Punjab Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

In orderto achieve 4 per cent growth rate in agriculture as envisaged by the Planning Commission, Govt, of India, top priority need to be given to highly productive and profitable cropping systems, which can meet the food demand of burgeoning population and adequate attention has to be paid to remove bottleneck in achieving the growth rate. Cropping system research plays crucial role in crop diversification and intensification by selecting alternative crops, inclusion of catch and cash crops and making best use of leftover of each crop in synergistic manner. The cropping systems vary from region to region as they are designated on the basis of climate, soil type, irrigation facilities, market demand, input supply, labour availability and farmers' perception to adopt the systems. Therefore, all efforts are being made to develop production and protection technologies in all the agro-climatic regions of the country. Source


Kumar S.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research | Sairam R.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prabhu K.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Temperature stress is one of the major limitations to crop productivity worldwide. Identifying suitable screening indices and quantifiable traits would facilitate the crop improvement process for high temperature tolerance. The objective of the present study was to screen and to identify temperature tolerant Brassica genotypes on the basis of physiological parameters viz. relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, membrane stability index (MSI), total carotenoid content and yield. Fifteen Brassica juncea genotypes subjected to temperature stress by growing the crops at three dates of sowing i.e. 15th October (D1), 1st November (D2) and 15th November (D3); showed decrease in RWC, MSI and chlorophyll content at D2 and D3 sowings compared to the D1. Genotypes like Proagro, NDR 8801 and CS-52 showed lower decline in MSI, RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves and seed yield/plant, while Pusa Agrani, EJ-15 and Pusa Tarak showed comparatively greater decline in the above parameters. The results suggest that physiological parameters like MSI, RWC and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents can be used as simple indices for screening and identifying temperature stress tolerant genotypes. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology. Source


Dwivedi B.S.,Indian Institute of Science | Singh V.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Shukla A.K.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research | Meena M.C.,Indian Institute of Science
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

The effect of puddling in reducing water and nitrogen losses, and increasing rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields and N uptake depends on its intensity and also on the level of pre-puddling tillage, although an increase in the intensity of these operations involves excessive energy and may lead to a negative effect on the yield of succeeding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to sub-soil compaction. A 3-year field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam (Typic Ustochrept) soil of Modipuram, India to study the interactive effects of pre-puddling tillage and puddling intensity on irrigation water productivity (IWP) in rice, the concentration of nitrate-N in the soil profile, and the performance of rice and wheat crops. Treatments included 3 levels of pre-puddling tillage - discing followed by a tine-cultivation and planking (T 1), discing followed by 2 tine-cultivations and planking (T 2), or discing followed by 4 tine-cultivations and planking (T 4); and 3 puddling intensities, i.e. 1, 2 or 4 passess of a puddler in ponded water (P 1, P 2 and P 4, respectively), each followed by planking. Increasing tillage levels from T 1P 1 to T 4P 4 decreased irrigation water requirement by 22-25%, and increased rice grain yield by 1.6-2.2tha -1 and IWP by 0.26-0.34kgm -3 in different years. The post-rice nitrate-N concentration in the soil further indicated the advantage of puddling in retaining more nitrate-N in the upper profile, i.e. effective root zone. There was a significant (p≤0.05) interaction between pre-puddling tillage and puddling intensity on puddling index, which was the highest (0.63-0.65) under T 4P 4 during all years. Treatment T 4P 4 also increased bulk density over T 1P 1, especially at 28-33cm depth. This sub-soil compaction led to decreased wheat root mass density and wheat grain yield; the adverse effect of excessive puddling on wheat yield increased with time. The present study indicated 2 pre-puddling tillage operations followed by 2 passes of puddler, i.e. T 2P 2 as the optimum tillage combination with respect to energy efficiency in rice, total annual productivity and economic returns of the rice-wheat system. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Timsina J.,International Rice Research Institute | Kumar Singh V.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research | Majumdar K.,International Plant Nutrition Institute
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2013

Potassium (K) availability in soils is largely governed by their mineralogical composition. The extent of weathering of primary K-bearing minerals, the chemical pathways through which weathering takes place, as well as the dynamic equilibrium between various K fractions in soils are factors which determine different soil types of varying K-supplying capacity. The marked variability of K availability in soils in South Asia needs to be taken into account when formulating K-management strategies in intensive cereal-based systems in response to K application. Evidence from long-term fertilizer experiments in rice-rice (R-R) or rice-wheat (R-W) systems strongly indicates significant yield responses to K application and negative K balances where K application is either omitted or applied suboptimally. However, K-fertilizer recommendations in South Asia are generalized over large areas while farmers neglect K application to crops and remove crop residues from fields. These practices may strongly affect yield and soil K-fertility status in the emerging rice-maize (R-M) systems in different locations of South Asia. The dry-matter yield of the R-M system is usually much higher than that of the R-R or R-W system causing high withdrawal of nutrients from the soil. The current review assesses various K forms and K availability in diverse soil types of South Asia supporting rice-based systems. Aspects considered include: long-term crop yield and its response to added nutrients, K balance for intensive rice-based systems, and the role of crop residues in supplying K to crops. Emerging data from either completed or on-going experiments on the R-M systems in India and Bangladesh have revealed very high system productivity and variable responses and agronomic K-use efficiency of maize and rice. Potassium responses of maize are extremely high and variable for soils in Bangladesh. Finally, a plant-based strategy for field-specific nutrient management is presented and the need for models and decision support systems for developing efficient K management of the R-M system is also discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Singh V.K.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research | Kumar V.,Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

In the view of assessing the extent of S deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing areas of Trans- Gangetic Plain (TGP) zone and to measure the S response of rice-wheat system on farmers' field, 1191 soil samples were collected from Rai and Bapoli Agricultural Development Blocks (ADBs) of Sonipat and Panipat districts. The soil samples (0-15 cm soil profile) were analyzed for soil OC and available S content indicated that more than 60% soils were low in OC content and occurrence of S deficiency was also associated with soil OC content. Farmers' fertilizer management practices were highly imbalanced and skewed towards N and use of S fertilizers was generally negligible (only 17% farmers' apply). On-farm trials conducted on S deficient soils during 2004 to 2007 with four levels of S (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg S/ha) in a randomized block design indicated that S applied at 30 to 45 tonnes/ha, increased rice yields significantly (1.12 to 1.17 tonnes/ha and 1.26 to 1.35 tonnes/ha, respectively) compared with no-S application. Succeeding wheat also showed significant response to residual S at 30 or 45 kg S/ha. Compared with control, total S intake at 45 kg S/ ha was higher by 129% to 154% in rice and 86% to 81% in wheat. Lower S application dose (15 kg/ha) did not leave residual effect on the succeeding wheat crop. Skipping S application caused depletion in available S content of the soils (23 to 42%) over initial S status. After 03-crop cycles, apparent S balance was positive at both the study sites when rice received more than 30 kg/ha S. Substantial yield gains and higher value cost ratio due to S fertilization ( 95 to 103 /Re invested in S) was further substantiated with impact studies conducted during 2007 which reveal that more than 33% farmers started using S in fertilization schedule for rice-wheat system. Source

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