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Prusty A.K.,Project Directorate for Farming System Research PDFSR | Meena D.K.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute CIFRI | Mohapatra S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Panikkar P.,Regional Center | And 3 more authors.
International Aquatic Research | Year: 2015

As a new class of agricultural insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids are widely used to control insect pests. Synthetic pyrethroids have been shown to enter the aquatic environment from agricultural runoff or drift from aerial and ground-based spraying applications posing threat to fishes which are less tolerant to pesticides through direct exposure. These insecticides interfere with the sodium channel of the nervous system resulting in prolonged sodium tail current. Widespread application of these chemicals has warranted the attention of the ecologist to understand the impact of these chemicals on the aquatic environment. In this perspective, an updated account of toxicological evaluation of three type II synthetic pyrethroids, viz. deltamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate in terms of their physico-chemical, metabolic, hematological, histological, behavioral and reproductive aspects with respect to the fishes has been presented which may be useful for policy makers, academics, environmental scientists and agricultural professionals needing ready access to this information. The aim of the present synoptic literature appraisal was to summarize the main effect of current use, type II synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate) on aquatic environment due to their persistence and accumulation. This article will focus on non-target organisms in inland fresh water environment with special reference to fin fishes and will critically evaluate the toxicity of these pyrethroids in terms of growth inhibition, metabolic disorders, neurotoxicity, reproductive failure, enzymatic dysfunction, haematological alterations, and tissue damages. The rationalized information in this milieu may be useful in ecological risk evaluation and human health management as fish serves as an important bio-indicator for aquatic systems health. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Mohapatra S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Chakraborty T.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology | Prusty A.K.,Project Directorate for Farming System Research PDFSR | Kumar K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Five experimental diets with various combinations of probiotics, namely T1 & T6 (basal feed (BF) without probiotics), T2 & T7 (BF+Bacillus subtilis+Lactococcus lactis), T3 & T8 (BF+L. lactis+Saccharomyces cerevisiae), T4 & T9(BF+B. subtilis+S. cerevisiae) and T5 & T10 (BF+B. subtilis+L. lactis+S. cerevisiae) were fed to Labeo rohita fingerlings for 30days. Treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to Fenvalerate, at a concentration of 1.79μgL -1. The SOD and CAT activity was significantly affected (P<0.01) in fenvalerate treated groups. However, the supplementation of the three-probiotic mixture at equal concentration showed markedly reduced activity. Similarly, RBC, Hb, NBT, total protein and albumin values were reduced significantly (P<0.01) in the fenvalerate exposed fish as compared to the probiotic supplemented fish. Fenvalerate exposure also showed increased serum ALP, ACP and Bilirubin values (P<0.01) in comparison to the non-exposed fish. Histological observations of the gills, kidney and liver showed tissue degeneration after fenvalerate exposure, which however showed marked recovery on the three-probiotic mixture supplementation. Therefore, these results indicate that a mixture of multi-species probiotic supplementation in equal concentration acts beneficially in mitigating the stressful effects of fenvalerate. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Meena D.K.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute | Das P.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute | Kumar S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Mandal S.C.,Central Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The major hindrance in the development and sustainability of aquaculture industry is the occurrence of various diseases in the farming systems. Today, preventive and management measures are central concern to overcome such outbreak of diseases. Immunostimulants are considered as an effective tool for enhancing immune status of cultured organisms. Among different immunostimulants used in aquaculture practices, β-glucan is one of the promising immunostimulant, which is a homopolysaccharide of glucose molecule linked by the glycoside bond. It forms the major constituents of cell wall of some plants, fungi, bacteria, mushroom, yeast, and seaweeds. Major attention on β-glucan was captivated with the gain in knowledge on its receptors and the mechanism of action. The receptor present inside the animal body recognizes and binds to β-glucan, which in turn renders the animal with high resistance and enhanced immune response. This review highlights β-glucan as an immunostimulant, its effective dosages, and route of administration and furthermore provides an outline on role of β-glucan in enhancing growth, survival, and protection against infectious pathogens pertaining to fishes and shellfishes. Study also summarizes the effect of β-glucan on its receptors, recognition of proteins, immune-related enzymes, immune-related gene expression and their mechanisms of action. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Gupta S.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Gupta S.K.,Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research | Pal A.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Sahu N.P.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 9 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC50) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L0P0 (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L0P1 (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.25P1 (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.50P1 (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L0.75P1 (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x 2 + 5.366x + 5.812, r2 = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x2 + 2.833x + 6.506, r2 = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x3 - 12.30x2 + 35.23x + 9.874, r2 = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x3 - 8.429x2 + 31.80x + 8.718, r2 = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and augmented the growth. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Gupta S.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Gupta S.K.,Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research | Pal A.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Sahu N.P.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2014

A 45-day feeding trial was conducted to study the stress ameliorating and immunomodulatory role of microbial levan in Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC50) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty-five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L0P0 (basalfeed + 0% levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L0P1 (basalfeed + 0% levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.25P1 (basalfeed + 0.25% levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.50P1 (basalfeed + 0.50% levan with exposure to pesticide) and L0.75P1 (basalfeed + 0.75% levan with exposure to pesticide). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase (FDPase) activites were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and acetyl choline esterase (AchE) activities were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in higher levan-fed groups. RBC, haemoglobin and WBC counts were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the levan-fed groups. Similar trends were also observed for the total serum protein, globulin, NBT and lysozyme activities. Blood glucose and serum cortisol exhibited a third order polynomial relationship with increasing level of dietary levan. Overall result showed stress ameliorating, immunostimulating and protective role of microbial levan against fipronil-induced stress in C. carpio fry at 0.75% level of dietary levan supplementation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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