Progression | Date: 2016-07-22
A music composition and training system includes: identifying a first chord of a chord progression. Then, for multiple iterations, the system includes selecting a chord of the chord progression, beginning with the identified first chord, and: identifying one or more potential subsequent chords in such a way that each of the potential subsequent chords provide a musical progression; applying weighted criteria to each of the potential subsequent chords; selecting a second chord based on the weighting while also providing variety and unpredictability; and combining the second chord into the chord progression. The system then uses the generated chord progression to generate or teach music.
AIDS | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVE:: We compiled the largest dataset of seroconverter cohorts to date from 25 countries across Africa, North America, Europe, and SE/E. Asia to simultaneously estimate transition rates between CD4 stages and death, in ART-naive HIV-1 infected individuals. DESIGN:: A hidden Markov model incorporating a misclassification matrix was used to represent natural short-term fluctuations and measurement errors in CD4 counts. Covariates were included to estimate the transition rates and survival probabilities for each subgroup. RESULTS:: The median follow-up time for 16,373 eligible individuals was 4·1 (IQR 1·7-7·1) years and the mean age at seroconversion was 31·1 (standard deviation 8·8) years. 14,525 individuals had recorded CD4 counts pre-ART, 1,885 died, and 6,947 initiated ART. Median (IQR) survival for males aged 20 years at seroconversion was 13·0 (12?4 – 13·4), 11·6 (10?9 – 12·3) and 8·3 (7?9 – 8·9) years in, Europe/North America, Africa and South-East/East Asia, respectively. Mortality rates increase with age (hazard ratio [HR] 2·22, 95% CI 1·84 – 2·67 for >45 years compared with <25 years) and vary by region (HR 2·68, 1·75 – 4·12 for Africa and 1·88, 1·50 – 2·35 for Asia compared with Europe/North America). CD4 decline was significantly faster in Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America (HR 1·45, 1·36 – 1·54). CONCLUSIONS:: Mortality and CD4 progression rates exhibited regional and age-specific differences, with decreased survival in African and SE/E. Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America and in older age-groups. This extensive dataset reveals heterogeneities between regions and ages, which should be incorporated into future HIV models. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BIOTEC-02-2016 | Award Amount: 6.56M | Year: 2017
The transition to a biobased economy puts strong challenges on researchers and industry to develop sustainable processes. 2G biofuel plants use waste streams as substrates, but themselves generate a new waste stream of lignin-rich sludge that is left after saccharification of the carbohydrates. This waste stream is expected to exponentially increase with an increasing number of 2G bioethanol plants being built, according to a report of the International Energy Agency. FALCON aims to convert this lignin-rich industrial waste of 2G biofuel plants to higher value products, in particular shipping fuels, fuel additives and chemical building blocks. This would be the next consecutive step in turning waste to products, thus minimizing waste and simultaneously providing new alternatives for fossil resource based processes. The FALCON process is based on enzymatic and mild chemical conversion of the lignin waste stream, providing a more environmentally friendly approach to the production of fuels and chemical building blocks. FALCON takes full advantage of the lessons learned over the last 150 years in the petrochemical industry with respect to design of the processes. This implies an initial treatment at the 2G bioethanol plant, converting the waste to a lignin oil that can be more easily transported and also directly used as a low sulphur shipping fuel. It will be further converted into fuel additives and chemical building blocks in centralized facilities. To achieve this, FALCON has formed a consortium of industry (3), SME (4) and academics (2) covering the whole value chain from a 2G biofuel plant delivering the lignin waste to enzyme producers, chemists and process engineers to depolymerize the lignin to oil. End-users are a fuel and chemicals producer and a ship engine developer. This unique combination of expertise and infrastructure will ensure the development of three new value chains with a strong emphasis on the economical sustainability.
Greco A.,Progression |
Miranda C.,Progression |
Pierotti M.A.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2010
TRK oncogenes are observed in a consistent fraction of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); they arise from the fusion of the 3′ terminal sequences of the NTRK1/. NGF receptor gene with 5′ terminal sequences of various activating genes, such as TPM3, TPR and TFG. TRK oncoproteins display constitutive tyrosine-kinase activity, leading to in vitro and in vivo transformation. In this review studies performed during the last 20 years will be summarized. The following topics will be illustrated: (a) frequency of TRK oncogenes and correlation with radiation and tumor histopathological features; (b) molecular mechanisms underlying NTRK1 oncogenic rearrangements; (c) molecular and biochemical characterization of TRK oncoproteins, and their mechanism of action; (d) role of activating sequences in the activation of TRK oncoproteins. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Sethi N.,Princeton University |
Kang Y.,Princeton University |
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011
Classically known for its indispensible role in embryonic development, the Notch signalling pathway is gaining recognition for its regulation of adult tissue homoeostasis and aberrant activation in disease pathogenesis. The pathway has been implicated in cancer initiation and development, as well as early stages of cancer progression by regulating conserved cellular programs such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We recently extended the role of Notch signalling to late stages of tumour progression by elucidating a stroma-dependent mechanism for the pathway in osteolytic bone metastasis. Of clinical significance, disrupting the Notch pathway and associated molecular mediators of Notch-dependent bone metastasis may provide novel therapeutic strategies to combat aggressive bone metastatic disease. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.
Koh B.I.,Princeton University |
Kang Y.,Princeton University |
EMBO Reports | Year: 2012
Several bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to promote tumour growth and progression. These cells can home to the primary tumour and become active components of the tumour microenvironment. Recent studies have also identified bone marrow-derived cells-such as mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells-as contributors to cancer metastasis. The innate versatility of these cells provides diverse functional aid to promote malignancy, ranging from structural support to signal-mediated suppression of the host immune response. Here, we review the role of mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells in cancer metastasis. A better understanding of the bipolar nature of these bone marrow-derived cells in physiological and malignant contexts could pave the way for new therapeutics against metastatic disease. © 2012 European Molecular Biology Organization.
Sethi N.,Princeton University |
Kang Y.,Princeton University |
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2011
Despite recognizing the devastating consequences of metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The inherent complexity of genomic alterations in late-stage cancers, coupled with numerous heterotypic interactions that occur between tumour and stromal cells, represent fundamental challenges in our quest to understand and control metastatic disease. The incorporation of genomic and other systems level approaches, as well as technological breakthroughs in imaging and animal modelling, have galvanized the effort to overcome gaps in our understanding of metastasis. Future research carries with it the potential to translate the wealth of new knowledge and conceptual advances into effective targeted therapies. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Ell B.,Princeton University |
Mercatali L.,IRCCS Scientific Institute of Romagna for the Study and Treatment of Cancer IRST IRCCS |
Ibrahim T.,IRCCS Scientific Institute of Romagna for the Study and Treatment of Cancer IRST IRCCS |
Campbell N.,Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey |
And 5 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2013
Understanding the mechanism by which tumor cells influence osteoclast differentiation is crucial for improving treatment of osteolytic metastasis. Here, we report broad microRNA (miRNA) expression changes in differentiating osteoclasts after exposure to tumor-conditioned media, in part through activation of NFκB signaling by soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM1) secreted from bone-metastatic cancer cells. Ectopic expression of multiple miRNAs downregulated during osteoclastogenesis suppresses osteoclast differentiation by targeting important osteoclast genes. Intravenous delivery of these miRNAs invivo inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces osteolytic bone metastasis. Importantly, serum levels of sICAM1 and two osteoclast miRNAs, miR-16 and miR-378, which are elevated in osteoclast differentiation, correlate with bone metastasis burden. These findings establish miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers of bone metastasis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Progression | Date: 2013-04-08
A coal analysis system and method includes an extrusion subsystem configured to produce an extrusion from coal samples. An auger drives coal samples through a centering ring producing the extrusion. A LIBS subsystem is configured to analyze the extrusion and an NMR analysis subsystem is downstream of the LIBS subsystem to further analyze the coal.
Progression | Date: 2011-05-03
An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between the air intake port (20) and the air output port (30) for turning kinetic energy of an airstream from the air intake port (20) to the air output port (30) into mechanical energy. The turbine (40) comprises at least one adjustable vane (48) for controlling an air flow resistance of the turbine (40). An electrical generator (46) is coupled to the turbine (40) for converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy. A controller (60) controls a rotational speed of the turbine (40) by controlling a quantity of electric power generated by the electrical generator (46), the controller (60) being configured to adapt the rotational speed of the turbine (40) to the air flow resistance of the turbine (40) in such a way that a substantially optimal turbine efficiency is obtained.