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Diaby V.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Diaby V.,McMaster University | Diaby V.,Florida A&M University | Goeree R.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research | Year: 2014

In recent years, the quest for more comprehensiveness, structure and transparency in reimbursement decision-making in healthcare has prompted the research into alternative decision-making frameworks. In this environment, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is arising as a valuable tool to support healthcare decision-making. In this paper, we present the main MCDA decision support methods (elementary methods, value-based measurement models, goal programming models and outranking models) using a case study approach. For each family of methods, an example of how an MCDA model would operate in a real decision-making context is presented from a critical perspective, highlighting the parameters setting, the selection of the appropriate evaluation model as well as the role of sensitivity and robustness analyses. This study aims to provide a step-by-step guide on how to use MCDA methods for reimbursement decision-making in healthcare. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Sutherland C.S.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Sutherland C.S.,University of Basel | Yukich J.,Tulane University | Goeree R.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense. It is transmitted to humans via the tsetse fly. Approximately 70 million people worldwide were at risk of infection in 1995, and approximately 20,000 people across Africa are infected with HAT. The objective of this review was to identify existing economic evaluations in order to summarise cost-effective interventions to reduce, control, or eliminate the burden of HAT. The studies included in the review were compared and critically appraised in order to determine if there were existing standardised methods that could be used for economic evaluation of HAT interventions or if innovative methodological approaches are warranted. A search strategy was developed using keywords and was implemented in January 2014 in several databases. The search returned a total of 2,283 articles. After two levels of screening, a total of seven economic evaluations were included and underwent critical appraisal using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations. Results from the existing studies focused on the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the control and reduction of disease transmission. Modelling was a common method to forecast long-term results, and publications focused on interventions by category, such as case detection, diagnostics, drug treatments, and vector control. Most interventions were considered cost-effective based on the thresholds described; however, the current treatment, nifurtomix-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT), has not been evaluated for cost-effectiveness, and considerations for cost-effective strategies for elimination have yet to be completed. Overall, the current evidence highlights the main components that play a role in control; however, economic evaluations of HAT elimination strategies are needed to assist national decision makers, stakeholders, and key funders. These analyses would be of use, as HAT is currently being prioritized as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) to reach elimination by 2020. © 2015 Sutherland et al.


Nam J.,McMaster University | Caners K.,McMaster University | Bowen J.M.,McMaster University | Bowen J.M.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014

Study objective To present a review of out-of-hospital identification of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients transported by emergency medical services with 12-lead ECG and advance notification versus standard or no cardiac monitoring. Methods EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched, using controlled vocabulary and keywords. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. Outcomes included short-term mortality (≤30 days), door-to-balloon/needle time and/or first medical contact-to-balloon/needle time. Pooled estimates were determined, where appropriate. Results were stratified by percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis. Results The search yielded 1,857 citations, of which 68 full-texts were reviewed and 16 studies met the final criteria: 15 included data on percutaneous coronary intervention and 3 on fibrinolysis (2 included both). Where percutaneous coronary intervention was performed, out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG and advance notification was associated with a 39% reduction in short-term mortality (8 studies; n=6,339; risk ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.89; P=.01; I2=30%) compared with standard or no cardiac monitoring. Where fibrinolysis was performed, out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG and advance notification was associated with a 29% reduction in short-term mortality (1 study; n=17,026; risk ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.93; P=.01). First medical contact-to-balloon, door-to-balloon, and door-to-needle times were consistently reduced, though large heterogeneity generally precluded pooling. Conclusion The present study adds to previous reviews by identifying and appraising the strength and quality of a larger body of evidence. Out-of-hospital identification with 12-lead ECG and aadvance notification was found to be associated with reductions in short-term mortality and first medical contact-to-balloon, door-to-balloon, and door-to-needle time. © 2013 by the American College of Emergency Physicians.


Tarride J.-E.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Tarride J.-E.,McMaster University | Guo N.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Guo N.,McMaster University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2012

There is a dearth of information about the burden of osteoporosis in Canadian men. To fill this gap, we conducted a burden of illness study aimed at estimating the economic burden attributable to osteoporosis in Canadian men aged 50 years and older. Five national data sources were used to estimate health care resource utilization and costs (in 2010 Canadian dollars) associated with osteoporosis in men. Any information gap was supplemented by using data from provincial and community sources. Direct medical costs included costs associated with hospitalizations, same day surgeries, emergency room visits, rehabilitation, chronic care, long-term care, home care, physician visits, and prescribed medications. The value of lost productivity from patients and informal caregivers was also determined to provide a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key assumptions on the results. In fiscal year 2007/2008, the total economic burden of treating and rehabilitating male osteoporotic fractures was estimated at $570 million per year, where direct medical costs accounted for 86%. Acute care utilization was responsible for 70% of all direct costs. About 51% of all hospitalizations were for hip fractures and hip fractures alone accounted for 54% of the acute care spending. If a proportion of Canadian men were assumed to live in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis, the overall annual cost of osteoporosis would increase from $570 million to $910 million. Male osteoporosis has a substantial economic burden on the Canadian society. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Burke N.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Burke N.,McMaster University | Whelan J.P.,McMaster University | Goeree L.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Urology | Year: 2010

Emerging minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic obstruction may have advantages over transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published upto April 2008 comparing TURP with photoselective vaporization, holmium laser ablation, and bipolar TURP. A total of 38 articles reporting results from 21 trials were included (photoselective vaporization = 3; holmium laser ablation = 1; bipolar TURP = 17). An assessment of perioperative and postoperative outcomes up to 12 months indicates benefits for these procedures. However, long-term follow-up and stronger methodological quality of the evidence is required to assess the long-term durability of the technologies. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Goeree R.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Goeree R.,McMaster University | Diaby V.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Diaby V.,McMaster University
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

In a climate of escalating demands for new health care services and significant constraints on new resources, the disciplines of health economics and health technology assessment (HTA) have increasingly been turned to as explicit evidence-based frameworks to help make tough health care access and reimbursement decisions. Health economics is the discipline of economics concerned with the efficient allocation of health care resources, essentially trying to maximize health benefits to society contingent upon available resources. HTA is a broader field drawing upon several disciplines, but which relies heavily upon the tools of health economics and economic evaluation. Traditionally, health economics and economic evaluation have been widely used at the political (macro) and local (meso) decision-making levels, and have progressively had an important role even at informing individual clinical decisions (micro level). The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to health economics and discuss its relevance to frontline clinicians. Particularly, the content of the paper will facilitate clinicians' understanding of the link between economics and their medical practice, and how clinical decision-making reflects on health care resource allocation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Diaby V.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Diaby V.,McMaster University | Campbell K.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute | Campbell K.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
Operations Research for Health Care | Year: 2013

Decision support is a discipline that is becoming increasingly important in health care decision making. Many jurisdictions are exploring the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) as a decision support framework. Indeed, health care decision makers still face complex choices while being urged to provide more comprehensiveness, structure, and transparency to the existing decision-making framework.This paper documents MCDA applications in health care and aims at identifying publication patterns as well as the range of topics to which MCDA have been applied. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis was conducted on articles reporting MCDA applications in health care published from 1960 to 2011. Articles identified through a literature search of health databases were categorized by year of publication, research topics, corresponding authors, country of residence of corresponding authors, and journal titles. The analysis of citation data was conducted in Matheo Analyzer 4.062. Over the time horizon of the analysis, the number of MCDA applications in health care has shown a significant and steady increase, with health care resource allocation being the most prevalent research topic. We also found that the top ten corresponding authors were responsible for 28% of the overall articles, with corresponding authors from the United States being the most prolific. The journal 'Health Economics' ranked first among the top ten journals. The results of this bibliometric analysis are concordant with the overall publication trends of MCDA methods described in other fields. Further research is needed, within jurisdictions, to select the most appropriate MCDA method to be applied to health care. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Manca A.,University of York | Sculpher M.J.,University of York | Goeree R.,McMaster University | Goeree R.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute
PharmacoEconomics | Year: 2010

Evidence produced by multinational trial-based cost-effectiveness studies is often used to inform decisions concerning the adoption of new healthcare technologies. A key issue relating to the use of this type of evidence is the extent to which trial-wide economic results are applicable to every single country participating in the study. We consider what role cost-effectiveness analysis alongside multinational trials should have in assisting reimbursement decisions at jurisdiction and national levels. Using the proposed framework as a benchmark to evaluate their relative pros and cons, we then describe and review the statistical approaches used in the multinational trial-based cost-effectiveness literature. The results of the review are used to define the desirable characteristics a statistical method for the analysis of data collected from different jurisdictions should have in order to be consistent with the proposed framework.It is argued that Bayesian hierarchical models that use both patient- and country-level information are the most appropriate tool to analyse multinational trial-based cost-effectiveness data and facilitate the between-country generalizability assessment of the study findings. The merits of each approach are discussed, highlighting problems and limitations, in order to identify areas of future research. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.


To identify patient management patterns in patients with solid tumors and metastatic bone disease who are receiving intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid and pamidronate), and to estimate the time and health care resources used for preparation and administration of zoledronic acid and pamidronate in patients with metastatic bone disease in Canada. A modified 2-round Delphi technique was used, which was composed of 7 clinical experts. The first round was performed through telephone interviews with individual clinical experts to assess the management of patients with bone metastases receiving IV zoledronic acid and pamidronate. The interviews focused on qualitative issues, such as drugs administered, cancers identified, and the method of drug administration. The information obtained from the first round was used to describe typical patient management patterns. The information obtained from the second round was done by a face-to-face meeting involving all expert members, with the aim of confirming the management patterns, and identifying commonality and uniqueness across institutions. The time and health care resources needed for preparation and administration of the IV bisphosphonates were estimated. The expert panel comprised 4 pharmacists and 3 nurses from 2 centers in Ontario and 3 centers in Quebec. The main stages identified, which were associated with the preparation and administration of pamidronate and zoledronic acid, included preinfusion activities, IV access set-up, IV bisphosphonate preparation, chemotherapy infusion (if applicable), IV bisphosphonate infusion, and postinfusion activities. Five patient management patterns were identified and varied with respect to inclusion of chemotherapy and the use of ambulatory infusion devices. Without chemotherapy, the mean time for preparation and administration of zoledronic acid ranged from 38 minutes in a community service center to 85 minutes in a hospital-based cancer center. With chemotherapy, the total mean time increased to 119 minutes for patients with prostate cancer and 173 minutes for patients with breast cancer. The mean time for preparation and administration of pamidronate was 159 minutes with the use of a regular infusion device, and the time in the clinic was only 14 minutes with the use of an ambulatory infusion device. If chemotherapy was scheduled on the same visits, the mean time increased substantially, and varied depending on the type of cancer being treated. Preparation and administration of IV bisphosphonates are associated with notable burden to health care providers and patients, even if the waiting time, including preinfusion (eg, IV access set-up, serum creatinine level monitoring) and postinfusion activities, were excluded. Variations in the time and health care resources utilized for preparing and administering IV bisphosphonates were observed across the centers in Canada. The variation could be primarily due to the difference in patient management patterns.


Bowen J.M.,Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health PATH Research Institute
Ontario health technology assessment series | Year: 2012

In August 2011 a proposed epilepsy care model was presented to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) by an Expert Panel on a Provincial Strategy for Epilepsy Care in Ontario. The Expert Panel recommended leveraging existing infrastructure in the province to provide enhanced capacity for epilepsy care. The point of entry for epilepsy care and the diagnostic evaluation for surgery candidacy and the epilepsy surgery would occur at regional and district epilepsy centres in London, Hamilton, Toronto, and Ottawa and at new centres recommended for northern and eastern Ontario. This economic analysis report was requested by OHTAC to provide information about the estimated budgetary impact on the Ontario health care system of increasing access to epilepsy surgery and to examine the cost-effectiveness of epilepsy surgery in both children and adults. A prevalence-based "top-down" health care system budgetary impact model from the perspective of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care was developed to estimate the potential costs associated with expanding health care services to increase access to epilepsy care in general and epilepsy surgery in particular. A 5-year period (i.e., 2012-2016) was used to project annual costs associated with incremental epilepsy care services. Ontario Health Survey estimates of epilepsy prevalence, published epilepsy incidence data, and Canadian Census results for Ontario were used to approximate the number of individuals with epilepsy in the province. Applying these population estimates to data obtained from a recent field evaluation study that examined patterns of care and costs associated with epilepsy surgery in children, a health care system budget impact was calculated and the total costs and incremental costs associated with increasing access to surgery was estimated. In order to examine the cost-effectiveness of epilepsy surgery in children, a decision analysis compared epilepsy surgery to continued medical management in children with medically intractable epilepsy. Data from the field evaluation were combined with various published data to estimate the costs and outcomes for children with drug-refractory epilepsy over a 20-year period. Outcomes were defined as the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) accumulated over 20 years following epilepsy surgery. There are about 20,981 individuals with medically intractable epilepsy in Ontario. Of these, 9,619 (1,441 children and 8,178 adults) could potentially be further assessed at regional epilepsy centres for suitability for epilepsy surgery, following initial evaluation at a district epilepsy care centre. The health care system impact analysis related to increasing access to epilepsy surgery in the Ontario through the addition of epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) beds with video electroencephalography (vEEG) monitoring (total capacity of 15 pediatric EMU beds and 35 adult EMU beds distributed across the province) and the associated clinical resources is estimated to require an incremental $18.1 million (Cdn) annually over the next 5 years from 2012 to 2016. This would allow for about 675 children and 1050 adults to be evaluated each year for suitability for epilepsy surgery representing a 150% increase in pediatric epilepsy surgery evaluation and a 170% increase in adult epilepsy surgery evaluation. Epilepsy surgery was found to be cost-effective compared to continued medical management in children with drug-refractory epilepsy with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $25,020 (Cdn) to $69,451 (Cdn) per QALY for 2 of the scenarios examined. In the case of choosing epilepsy surgery versus continued medical management in children known to be suitable for surgery, the epilepsy surgery was found to be less costly and provided greater clinical benefit, that is, it was the dominant strategy. Epilepsy surgery for medically intractable epilepsy in suitable candidates has consistently been found to provide favourable clinical outcomes and has been demonstrated to be cost-effective in both adult and child patient populations. The first step to increasing access to epilepsy surgery is to provide access to evidence-based care for all patients with epilepsy, both adults and children, through the provision of resources to expand EMU bed capacity and associated clinical personnel across the province of Ontario.

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