Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Abidjan, Ivory Coast

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Benaboud S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Benaboud S.,University of Paris Descartes | Pruvost A.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Coffie P.A.,Programme PACCI | And 11 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The aim was to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) neonatal ingestion through breast milk. Median TFV and FTC breast milk doses represented 0.03% and 2%, respectively, of the proposed oral infant doses. Neonatal simulated plasma concentrations were extremely low for TFV but between the half-maximal inhibitory concentration and the adult minimal expected concentration for FTC. The rare children who will acquire HIV despite TDF-FTC therapy will need to be monitored for viral resistance acquisition. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Lewden C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lewden C.,UniversiteBordeaux Segalen | Gabillard D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gabillard D.,UniversiteBordeaux Segalen | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Background: CD4-specific rates of mortality in sub-Saharan African adults with high CD4 counts have rarely been estimated. This estimation is useful to the when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) debate. Methods: We pooled data from National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS)-funded research cohorts or associated partners in West Africa. All HIV-infected adults ($18 years) with available follow-up time off ART were eligible. We used a joint model to estimate CD4 count evolution. We estimated CD4-specific rates of mortality, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and ART initiation by dividing the number of first event by the follow-up time off ART within each CD4 category. Results: Between 1996 and 2009, 2588 adults (80% women) from 5 cohorts in Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso were followed off ART during 6862 person-years. In the 201-350, 351-500, 501-650, and .650 cells per cubic millimeter CD4 categories, mortality rates were: 3.0, 1.5, 0.4, 0.2 per 100 person-years; LTFU rates: 6.0, 4.6, 6.1, 6.0 per 100 person-years; and ART initiation rates: 18.1, 2.7, 0.5, 0.5 per 100 person-years, respectively. All estimates varied across cohorts; mortality rates were higher when rates of LFTU and ART initiation were lower; LTFU rates were 2-40 times higher than mortality rates. Conclusions: Among untreated West African adults with high CD4 counts, mortality and LTFU rates were substantial. Even when data are collected under research conditions, informative censoring due to ART initiation and LTFU could lead to significantly underestimate mortality figures. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Institut Universitaire de France, University Paul Sabatier, Programme PACCI and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two.We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity.Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8-18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95-$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61-50.90).ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Cte dIvoire.


PubMed | Programme PACCI, French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Clinique de Confiance and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC oral health | Year: 2015

Worldwide, female sex workers (FSW) represent a vulnerable population for oral diseases due to many risk factors including HIV infection and drug abuse. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the burden of oral diseases and their determinants in vulnerable populations. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of oral diseases among FSW.A cross sectional study was conducted among FSW who attended a dedicated non-profit clinic in Abidjan, Cte dIvoire from June to August 2013. Data about the presence of dental caries, periodontitis and oral-mucosal lesions were collected by a dentist during an oral examination. Behavioural information related to oral hygiene habits as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were collected through a standardized questionnaire. Information related to HIV infection including HIV diagnosis, last known CD4 count and antiretroviral therapy were documented through a medical chart review. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with oral diseases.A total of 249 FSW with a median age of 29years, [Inter Quartile Range (IQR)=23-36] and a median duration of sex work of 24months [IQR 9-60]) were included. Current tobacco use and hazardous alcohol use were reported in 21.7% and 19.7% of FSW, respectively. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection was 33.7% [95% confidence interval (CI); 27.8 - 39.6]) and 82.1% of HIV-infected FSW were on antiretroviral therapy . The prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis and oral-mucosal lesions were 62.3% [95% CI 55.5 - 67.5], 14.5% [95% CI 10.2 - 18.9] and 8.2% [95% CI 4.8 - 11.5], respectively. In multivariate analysis, periodontitis, oral-mucosal lesions and HIV infection were associated with odds ratio of 2.6 [95% CI, 1.2-5.8]) and 50.0 [95% CI; 6.4-384.6].This study showed a high prevalence of oral diseases among FSW in Abidjan. HIV infection was common and significantly associated with periodontal diseases and oral-mucosal lesions. There is a need to integrate regular screening and treatment of oral lesions into the medical follow-up of FSW along with strategies for HIV prevention.


Gabillard D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gabillard D.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Lewden C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lewden C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background: In resource-limited countries, estimating CD4-specific incidence rates of mortality and morbidity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help assess the effectiveness of care and treatment programmes, identify program weaknesses, and inform decisions. Methods: We pooled data from 13 research cohorts in 5 sub- Saharan African (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, and Senegal) and 2 Asian (Cambodia and Laos) countries. HIVinfected adults (18 years and older) who received ART in 1998- 2008 and had at least one CD4 count available were eligible. Changes in CD4 counts over time were estimated by a linear mixed regression. CD4-specific incidence rates were estimated as the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 stratum divided by the time spent within the stratum. Results: Overall 3917 adults (62% women) on ART were followed up during 10,154 person-years. In the #50, 51-100, 101-200, 201- 350, 351-500, 501-650, and .650 cells/mm3 CD4 cells strata, death rates were 20.6, 11.8, 6.7, 3.3, 1.8, 0.9, and 0.3 per 100 person-years; AIDS rates were 50.5, 32.9, 11.5, 4.8, 2.8, 2.2, and 2.2 per 100 person-years; and loss-to-follow-up rates were 4.9, 6.1, 3.5, 3.1, 2.9, 1.7, and 1.2 per 100 person-years, respectively. Mortality and morbidity were higher during the first year after ART initiation. Conclusions: In these resource-limited settings, death and AIDS rates remained substantial after ART initiation, even in individuals with high CD4 cell counts. Ensuring earlier ART initiation and optimizing case finding and treatment for AIDS-defining diseases should be seen as priorities. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Brinkhof M.W.G.,University of Bern | Spycher B.D.,University of Bern | Yiannoutsos C.,Indiana University | Weigel R.,Lighthouse Trust at Kamuzu Central Hospital and Ministry of Health | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Evaluation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult because many patients are lost to follow-up. Outcomes in these patients are generally unknown but studies tracing patients have shown mortality to be high. We adjusted programme-level mortality in the first year of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for excess mortality in patients lost to follow-up. Methods and Findings: Treatment-nai{dotless}̈ve patients starting combination ART in five programmes in Cô te d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi and South Africa were eligible. Patients whose last visit was at least nine months before the closure of the database were considered lost to follow-up. We filled missing survival times in these patients by multiple imputation, using estimates of mortality from studies that traced patients lost to follow-up. Data were analyzed using Weibull models, adjusting for age, sex, ART regimen, CD4 cell count, clinical stage and treatment programme. A total of 15,915 HIV-infected patients (median CD4 cell count 110 cells/mL, median age 35 years, 68% female) were included; 1,001 (6.3%) were known to have died and 1,285 (14.3%) were lost to follow-up in the first year of ART. Crude estimates of mortality at one year ranged from 5.7% (95% CI 4.9-6.5%) to 10.9% (9.6-12.4%) across the five programmes. Estimated mortality hazard ratios comparing patients lost to follow-up with those remaining in care ranged from 6 to 23. Adjusted estimates based on these hazard ratios ranged from 10.2% (8.9-11.6%) to 16.9% (15.0-19.1%), with relative increases in mortality ranging from 27% to 73% across programmes. Conclusions: Nai{dotless}̈ve survival analysis ignoring excess mortality in patients lost to follow-up may greatly underestimate overall mortality, and bias ART programme evaluations. Adjusted mortality estimates can be obtained based on excess mortality rates in patients lost to follow-up. © 2010 Brinkhof et al.


Oga M.A.,Programme PACCI | Ndondoki C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Brou H.,Programme PACCI | Salmon A.,Programme PACCI | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011

Objective: We assessed attitudes and practices of health care workers (HCWs) toward HIV counselling and testing (CT) routinely offered to infants in health facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey inquiring on systematic HIV CT offered to children aged 6-26 weeks attending postnatal care for either immunization or pediatric care and to their parents in 4 community health centres rolling-out access to antiretroviral therapy. Data were collected using standardized anonymous self-questionnaires directed to all HCWs involved. Results: One-hundred five HCWs were interviewed in 2008: 30% were social workers, 27% physicians, 24% nurses and 19% laboratory technicians. Among immunization staff (n = 45), none trained in child CT versus 26% in pediatric services (n = 60, P < 0001). Almost all staff believed that it is important to offer HIV screening services to children and the best place could be during pediatric consultations. In their daily work, 22% of immunization staff and 48% of pediatric care staff had already been dealing with early HIV CT (P = 0.01). Facing a child suspected to be HIV infected, only 54% of providers in pediatrics and 71% in immunization would offer CT to all family members (P = 0.01). Conclusions: In Abidjan, although HCWs were generally in favour of pediatric HIV screening, very few had received specific training to do so. Deleguation of CT to the primary care level could improve coverage of CT services. It is urgent to train HCWs to promote early infant HIV diagnosis to improve earlier access to antiretroviral therapy in West African HIV-infected children. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | University of Yaounde I, Programme PACCI, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and Montpellier University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015

To propose two new indicators for monitoring access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (i) the time from HIV seroconversion to ART initiation, and (ii) the time from ART eligibility to initiation, referred to as delay in ART initiation. To estimate values of these indicators in Cameroon.We used linear regression to model the natural decline in CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) numbers in HIV-infected individuals over time. The model was fitted using data from a cohort of 351 people in Cte dIvoire. We used the model to estimate the time from seroconversion to ART initiation and the delay in ART initiation in a representative sample of 4154 HIV-infected people who started ART in Cameroon between 2007 and 2010.In Cameroon, the median CD4+ cell counts at ART initiation increased from 140 cells/l (interquartile range, IQR: 66 to 210) in 2007-2009 to 163 cells/l (IQR: 73 to 260) in 2010. The estimated average time from seroconversion to ART initiation decreased from 10.4 years (95% confidence interval, CI: 10.3 to 10.5) to 9.8 years (95% CI: 9.6 to 10.0). Delay in ART initiation increased from 3.4 years (95% CI: 3.1 to 3.7) to 5.8 years (95% CI: 5.6 to 6.2).The estimated time to initiate ART and the delay in ART initiation indicate that progress in Cameroon is insufficient. These indicators should help monitor whether public health interventions to accelerate ART initiation are successful.


Ndondoki C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Brou H.,Programme PACCI | Timite-Konan M.,Abidjan Graduate School | Oga M.,Programme PACCI | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC) is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID). We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Methods:In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6-26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected.Findings:We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58%) accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI): [14%-16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61%) accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%-5.4%]). Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52%) had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%-21.7%]). Only 46 fathers (2%) came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3-10.6], p = 0.0001).Conclusions:Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries. © 2013 Ndondoki et al.


PubMed | Programme PACCI
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2014

Few data are available on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-2 infected patients. We conducted a systematic review on treatment outcomes among HIV-2 infected patients on ART, focusing on the immunological and virological responses in adults.Data were extracted from articles that were selected after screening of PubMed/MEDLINE up to November 2012 and abstracts of the 1996-2012 international conferences. Observational cohorts, clinical trials and program reports were eligible as long as they reported data on ART response (clinical, immunological or virological) among HIV-2 infected patients. The determinants investigated included patients demographic characteristics, CD4 cell count at baseline and ART received.Seventeen reports (involving 976 HIV-2 only and 454 HIV1&2 dually reactive patients) were included in the final review, and the analysis presented in this report are related to HIV-2 infected patients only. There was no randomized controlled trial and only two cohorts had enrolled more than 100 HIV-2 only infected patients. The median CD4 count at ART initiation was 165 cells/mm3, [IQR; 137-201] and the median age at ART initiation was 44years (IQR: 42-48 years). Ten studies included 103 patients treated with three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Protease inhibitor (PI) based regimens were reported by 16 studies. Before 2009, the most frequent PIs used were Nelfinavir and Indinavir, whereas it was Lopinavir/ritonavir thereafter. The immunological response at month-12 was reported in six studies and the mean CD4 cell count increase was +118 cells/L (min-max: 45-200 cells/L).Overall, clinical and immuno-virologic outcomes in HIV-2 infected individuals treated with ART are suboptimal. There is a need of randomized controlled trials to improve the management and outcomes of people living with HIV-2 infection.

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