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Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Oga M.A.,Programme PACCI | Ndondoki C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Brou H.,Programme PACCI | Salmon A.,Programme PACCI | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011

Objective: We assessed attitudes and practices of health care workers (HCWs) toward HIV counselling and testing (CT) routinely offered to infants in health facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey inquiring on systematic HIV CT offered to children aged 6-26 weeks attending postnatal care for either immunization or pediatric care and to their parents in 4 community health centres rolling-out access to antiretroviral therapy. Data were collected using standardized anonymous self-questionnaires directed to all HCWs involved. Results: One-hundred five HCWs were interviewed in 2008: 30% were social workers, 27% physicians, 24% nurses and 19% laboratory technicians. Among immunization staff (n = 45), none trained in child CT versus 26% in pediatric services (n = 60, P < 0001). Almost all staff believed that it is important to offer HIV screening services to children and the best place could be during pediatric consultations. In their daily work, 22% of immunization staff and 48% of pediatric care staff had already been dealing with early HIV CT (P = 0.01). Facing a child suspected to be HIV infected, only 54% of providers in pediatrics and 71% in immunization would offer CT to all family members (P = 0.01). Conclusions: In Abidjan, although HCWs were generally in favour of pediatric HIV screening, very few had received specific training to do so. Deleguation of CT to the primary care level could improve coverage of CT services. It is urgent to train HCWs to promote early infant HIV diagnosis to improve earlier access to antiretroviral therapy in West African HIV-infected children. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Brinkhof M.W.G.,University of Bern | Spycher B.D.,University of Bern | Yiannoutsos C.,Indiana University | Weigel R.,Lighthouse Trust at Kamuzu Central Hospital and Ministry of Health | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Evaluation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult because many patients are lost to follow-up. Outcomes in these patients are generally unknown but studies tracing patients have shown mortality to be high. We adjusted programme-level mortality in the first year of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for excess mortality in patients lost to follow-up. Methods and Findings: Treatment-nai{dotless}̈ve patients starting combination ART in five programmes in Cô te d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi and South Africa were eligible. Patients whose last visit was at least nine months before the closure of the database were considered lost to follow-up. We filled missing survival times in these patients by multiple imputation, using estimates of mortality from studies that traced patients lost to follow-up. Data were analyzed using Weibull models, adjusting for age, sex, ART regimen, CD4 cell count, clinical stage and treatment programme. A total of 15,915 HIV-infected patients (median CD4 cell count 110 cells/mL, median age 35 years, 68% female) were included; 1,001 (6.3%) were known to have died and 1,285 (14.3%) were lost to follow-up in the first year of ART. Crude estimates of mortality at one year ranged from 5.7% (95% CI 4.9-6.5%) to 10.9% (9.6-12.4%) across the five programmes. Estimated mortality hazard ratios comparing patients lost to follow-up with those remaining in care ranged from 6 to 23. Adjusted estimates based on these hazard ratios ranged from 10.2% (8.9-11.6%) to 16.9% (15.0-19.1%), with relative increases in mortality ranging from 27% to 73% across programmes. Conclusions: Nai{dotless}̈ve survival analysis ignoring excess mortality in patients lost to follow-up may greatly underestimate overall mortality, and bias ART programme evaluations. Adjusted mortality estimates can be obtained based on excess mortality rates in patients lost to follow-up. © 2010 Brinkhof et al. Source

Lewden C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lewden C.,UniversiteBordeaux Segalen | Gabillard D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gabillard D.,UniversiteBordeaux Segalen | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Background: CD4-specific rates of mortality in sub-Saharan African adults with high CD4 counts have rarely been estimated. This estimation is useful to the when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) debate. Methods: We pooled data from National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS)-funded research cohorts or associated partners in West Africa. All HIV-infected adults ($18 years) with available follow-up time off ART were eligible. We used a joint model to estimate CD4 count evolution. We estimated CD4-specific rates of mortality, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and ART initiation by dividing the number of first event by the follow-up time off ART within each CD4 category. Results: Between 1996 and 2009, 2588 adults (80% women) from 5 cohorts in Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso were followed off ART during 6862 person-years. In the 201-350, 351-500, 501-650, and .650 cells per cubic millimeter CD4 categories, mortality rates were: 3.0, 1.5, 0.4, 0.2 per 100 person-years; LTFU rates: 6.0, 4.6, 6.1, 6.0 per 100 person-years; and ART initiation rates: 18.1, 2.7, 0.5, 0.5 per 100 person-years, respectively. All estimates varied across cohorts; mortality rates were higher when rates of LFTU and ART initiation were lower; LTFU rates were 2-40 times higher than mortality rates. Conclusions: Among untreated West African adults with high CD4 counts, mortality and LTFU rates were substantial. Even when data are collected under research conditions, informative censoring due to ART initiation and LTFU could lead to significantly underestimate mortality figures. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Gabillard D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gabillard D.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Lewden C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lewden C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background: In resource-limited countries, estimating CD4-specific incidence rates of mortality and morbidity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help assess the effectiveness of care and treatment programmes, identify program weaknesses, and inform decisions. Methods: We pooled data from 13 research cohorts in 5 sub- Saharan African (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, and Senegal) and 2 Asian (Cambodia and Laos) countries. HIVinfected adults (18 years and older) who received ART in 1998- 2008 and had at least one CD4 count available were eligible. Changes in CD4 counts over time were estimated by a linear mixed regression. CD4-specific incidence rates were estimated as the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 stratum divided by the time spent within the stratum. Results: Overall 3917 adults (62% women) on ART were followed up during 10,154 person-years. In the #50, 51-100, 101-200, 201- 350, 351-500, 501-650, and .650 cells/mm3 CD4 cells strata, death rates were 20.6, 11.8, 6.7, 3.3, 1.8, 0.9, and 0.3 per 100 person-years; AIDS rates were 50.5, 32.9, 11.5, 4.8, 2.8, 2.2, and 2.2 per 100 person-years; and loss-to-follow-up rates were 4.9, 6.1, 3.5, 3.1, 2.9, 1.7, and 1.2 per 100 person-years, respectively. Mortality and morbidity were higher during the first year after ART initiation. Conclusions: In these resource-limited settings, death and AIDS rates remained substantial after ART initiation, even in individuals with high CD4 cell counts. Ensuring earlier ART initiation and optimizing case finding and treatment for AIDS-defining diseases should be seen as priorities. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Ouattara E.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Ouattara E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Danel C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Danel C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

Introduction: Tenofovir (TDF) with emtricitabine (FTC) and zidovudine (ZDV) is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Clinical studies comparing TDF+ FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods: Participants in a trial of early ART in Côte d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136) started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV) or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine). We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs) between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3-4 AEs or persistent grade 1-2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results: A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3) started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting) of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p <0.0001), including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p <0.0001). In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1-4). Plasma ZDV (Cmax) distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. Conclusions: We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in Côte d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever possible, the rate of early upper digestive adverse events should be compared to that occurring in-patients taking other drug regimens. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00495651. © 2013 Ouattara E et al; licensee International AIDS Society. Source

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