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Robert J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Affolabi D.,Programme National contre la Tuberculose | Awokou F.,National Tuberculosis Control Programme | Nolna D.,National Tuberculosis Control Programme | And 4 more authors.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2013

background. The prevention of tuberculosis (TB) transmission in healthcare settings is a major issue, particularly because of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and TB and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB. setting. Healthcare facilities involved in TB management in 4 African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, and Togo). methods. A questionnaire was developed by representatives of the 4 countries to evaluate the organizational measures implemented in facilities involved in TB management. On-site visits were performed between July 2010 and July 2011. results. A total of 115 facilities, including 10 university hospitals and 92 basic management units, were visited. None had a TB infection control plan, and only 5.2% provided education for staff about nosocomial TB. Overall, 48.3% of the facilities performed triage of suspected TB cases on hospital arrival or admission, 89.6% provided education for TB cases on cough etiquette, 20.0% segregated smear-positive TB cases, and 15.7% segregated previously treated cases. A total of 15.5% of the facilities registered TB among staff, for a global prevalence rate of 348 cases per 100,000 staff members. conclusion. This survey identified simple and mostly costless administrative measures to be urgently implemented at the local level to prevent nosocomial TB, such as staff education, triage on admission, and segregation of previously treated patients. © 2012 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved. Source


Laokri S.,Free University of Colombia | Amoussouhui A.,Institute Regional Of Sante Publique | Ouendo E.M.,Institute Regional Of Sante Publique | Hounnankan A.C.,Institute Regional Of Sante Publique | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Free tuberculosis control fail to protect patients from substantial medical and non-medical expenditure, thus a greater degree of disaggregation of patient cost is needed to fully capture their context and inform policymaking. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of six health districts of Southern Benin. From August 2008 to February 2009, we recruited all smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated under the national strategy in the selected districts. Direct out-of-pocket costs associated with tuberculosis, time delays, and care-seeking pattern were collected from symptom onset to end of treatment. Results: Population description and outcome data were reported for 245 patients of whom 153 completed their care pathway. For them, the median overall direct cost was USD 183 per patient. Payments to traditional healers, self-medication drugs, travel, and food expenditures contributed largely to this cost burden. Patient, provider, and treatment delays were also reported. Pre-diagnosis and intensive treatment stages were the most critical stages, with median expenditure of USD 43 per patient and accounting for 38% and 29% of the overall direct cost, respectively. However, financial barriers differed depending on whether the patient lived in urban or rural areas. Conclusions: This study delivers new evidence about bottlenecks encountered during the TB care pathway. Financial barriers to accessing the free-of-charge tuberculosis control strategy in Benin remain substantial for low-income households. Irregular time delays and hidden costs, often generated by multiple visits to various care providers, impair appropriate patient pathways. Particular attention should be paid to pre-diagnosis and intensive treatment. Cost assessment and combined targeted interventions embodied by a patient-centered approach on the specific critical stages would likely deliver better program outcomes. © 2014 Laokri et al. Source

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