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PubMed | Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT, University of Würzburg, Hypertension Unit, University of Padua and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2014

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are aggressive cancers originating in the cortex of the adrenal gland. Despite overall poor prognosis, ACC outcome is heterogeneous. We performed exome sequencing and SNP array analysis of 45 ACCs and identified recurrent alterations in known driver genes (CTNNB1, TP53, CDKN2A, RB1 and MEN1) and in genes not previously reported in ACC (ZNRF3, DAXX, TERT and MED12), which we validated in an independent cohort of 77 ACCs. ZNRF3, encoding a cell surface E3 ubiquitin ligase, was the most frequently altered gene (21%) and is a potential new tumor suppressor gene related to the -catenin pathway. Our integrated genomic analyses further identified two distinct molecular subgroups with opposite outcome. The C1A group of ACCs with poor outcome displayed numerous mutations and DNA methylation alterations, whereas the C1B group of ACCs with good prognosis displayed specific deregulation of two microRNA clusters. Thus, aggressive and indolent ACCs correspond to two distinct molecular entities driven by different oncogenic alterations.


PubMed | Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Toulouse University Hospital Center, Aix - Marseille University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2016

Oligodendroglial tumours (OT) are a heterogeneous group of gliomas. Three molecular subgroups are currently distinguished on the basis of the IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. Here we present an integrated analysis of the transcriptome, genome and methylome of 156 OT. Not only does our multi-omics classification match the current classification but also reveals three subgroups within 1p/19q co-deleted tumours, associated with specific expression patterns of nervous system cell types: oligodendrocyte, oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) and neuronal lineage. We confirm the validity of these three subgroups using public datasets. Importantly, the OPC-like group is associated with more aggressive clinical and molecular patterns, including MYC activation. We show that the MYC activation occurs through various alterations, including MYC genomic gain, MAX genomic loss, MYC hypomethylation and microRNA-34b/c down-regulation. In the lower grade glioma TCGA dataset, the OPC-like group is associated with a poorer outcome independently of histological grade. Our study reveals previously unrecognized heterogeneity among 1p/19q co-deleted tumours.


Assie G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Assie G.,Center for Rare Adrenal Diseases | Letouze E.,Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT | Fassnacht M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 67 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are aggressive cancers originating in the cortex of the adrenal gland. Despite overall poor prognosis, ACC outcome is heterogeneous. We performed exome sequencing and SNP array analysis of 45 ACCs and identified recurrent alterations in known driver genes (CTNNB1, TP53, CDKN2A, RB1 and MEN1) and in genes not previously reported in ACC (ZNRF3, DAXX, TERT and MED12), which we validated in an independent cohort of 77 ACCs. ZNRF3, encoding a cell surface E3 ubiquitin ligase, was the most frequently altered gene (21%) and is a potential new tumor suppressor gene related to the Î 2-catenin pathway. Our integrated genomic analyses further identified two distinct molecular subgroups with opposite outcome. The C1A group of ACCs with poor outcome displayed numerous mutations and DNA methylation alterations, whereas the C1B group of ACCs with good prognosis displayed specific deregulation of two microRNA clusters. Thus, aggressive and indolent ACCs correspond to two distinct molecular entities driven by different oncogenic alterations. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


Di Stefano A.L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Di Stefano A.L.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere | Di Stefano A.L.,University of Pavia | Fucci A.,Columbia University | And 32 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Oncogenic fusions consisting of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and TACC are present in a subgroup of glioblastoma (GBM) and other human cancers and have been proposed as new therapeutic targets. We analyzed frequency and molecular features of FGFR-TACC fusions and explored the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting FGFR kinase in GBM and grade II and III glioma. Experimental Design: Overall, 795 gliomas (584 GBM, 85 grades II and III with wild-type and 126 with IDH1/2 mutation) were screened for FGFR-TACC breakpoints and associated molecular profile.Wealso analyzed expression of the FGFR3 and TACC3 components of the fusions. The effects of the specific FGFR inhibitor JNJ-42756493 for FGFR3-TACC3-positive glioma were determined in preclinical experiments. Two patients with advanced FGFR3-TACC3-positive GBM received JNJ-42756493 and were assessed for therapeutic response. Results: Three of 85 IDH1/2 wild-type (3.5%) but none of 126 IDH1/2-mutant grade II and III gliomas harbored FGFR3-TACC3 fusions. FGFR-TACC rearrangements were present in 17 of 584 GBM (2.9%). FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were associated with strong and homogeneous FGFR3 immunostaining. They are mutually exclusive with IDH1/2 mutations and EGFR amplification, whereas they co-occur with CDK4 amplification. JNJ-42756493 inhibited growth of glioma cells harboring FGFR3-TACC3 in vitro and in vivo. The two patients with FGFR3-TACC3 rearrangements who received JNJ-42756493 manifested clinical improvement with stable disease and minor response, respectively. Conclusions: RT-PCR sequencing is a sensitive and specific method to identify FGFR-TACC-positive patients. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions are associated with uniform intratumor expression of the fusion protein. The clinical response observed in the FGFR3-TACC3-positive patients treated with an FGFR inhibitor supports clinical studies of FGFR inhibition in FGFR-TACC-positive patients. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Ducray F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ducray F.,Aix - Marseille University | Ducray F.,Marseille University Hospital Center | de Reynies A.,University of Lyon | And 25 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: The molecular characteristics associated with the response to treatment in glioblastomas (GBMs) remain largely unknown. We performed a retrospective study to assess the genomic characteristics associated with the response of GBMs to either first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The gene expression (n = 56) and genomic profiles (n = 67) of responders and non-responders to first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone were compared on Affymetrix Plus 2 gene expression arrays and BAC CGH arrays.Results: According to Verhaak et al.'s classification system, mesenchymal GBMs were more likely to respond to radiotherapy than to first-line chemotherapy, whereas classical GBMs were more likely to respond to first-line chemotherapy than to radiotherapy. In patients treated with radiation therapy alone, the response was associated with differential expression of microenvironment-associated genes; the expression of hypoxia-related genes was associated with short-term progression-free survival (< 5 months), whereas the expression of immune genes was associated with prolonged progression-free survival (> 10 months). Consistently, infiltration of the tumor by both CD3 and CD68 cells was significantly more frequent in responders to radiotherapy than in non-responders. In patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, the expression of stem-cell genes was associated with resistance to chemotherapy, and there was a significant association between response to treatment and p16 locus deletions. Consistently, in an independent data set of patients treated with either radiotherapy alone or with both radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, we found that patients with the p16 deletion benefited from adjuvant chemotherapy regardless of their MGMT promoter methylation status, whereas in patients without the p16 deletion, this benefit was only observed in patients with a methylated MGMT promoter.Conclusion: Differential expression of microenvironment genes and p16 locus deletion are associated with responses to radiation therapy and to first-line chemotherapy, respectively, in GBM. Recently identified transcriptomic subgroups of GBMs seem to respond differently to radiotherapy and to first-line chemotherapy. © 2010 Ducray et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Benit P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Benit P.,University Paris Diderot | Letouze E.,Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT | Rak M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2014

Seventy years from the formalization of the Krebs cycle as the central metabolic turntable sustaining the cell respiratory process, key functions of several of its intermediates, especially succinate and fumarate, have been recently uncovered. The presumably immutable organization of the cycle has been challenged by a number of observations, and the variable subcellular location of a number of its constitutive protein components is now well recognized, although yet unexplained. Nonetheless, the most striking observations have been made in the recent period while investigating human diseases, especially a set of specific cancers, revealing the crucial role of Krebs cycle intermediates as factors affecting genes methylation and thus cell remodeling. We review here the recent advances and persisting incognita about the role of Krebs cycle acids in diverse aspects of cellular life and human pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Jeanmougin M.,Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT | Jeanmougin M.,Pharnext | Jeanmougin M.,University of Paris Descartes | Jeanmougin M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

High-throughput post-genomic studies are now routinely and promisingly investigated in biological and biomedical research. The main statistical approach to select genes differentially expressed between two groups is to apply a t-test, which is subject of criticism in the literature. Numerous alternatives have been developed based on different and innovative variance modeling strategies. However, a critical issue is that selecting a different test usually leads to a different gene list. In this context and given the current tendency to apply the t-test, identifying the most efficient approach in practice remains crucial. To provide elements to answer, we conduct a comparison of eight tests representative of variance modeling strategies in gene expression data: Welch's t-test, ANOVA [1], Wilcoxon's test, SAM [2], RVM [3], limma [4], VarMixt [5] and SMVar [6]. Our comparison process relies on four steps (gene list analysis, simulations, spike-in data and re-sampling) to formulate comprehensive and robust conclusions about test performance, in terms of statistical power, false-positive rate, execution time and ease of use. Our results raise concerns about the ability of some methods to control the expected number of false positives at a desirable level. Besides, two tests (limma and VarMixt) show significant improvement compared to the t-test, in particular to deal with small sample sizes. In addition limma presents several practical advantages, so we advocate its application to analyze gene expression data. © 2010 Jeanmougin et al.


PubMed | Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, French Atomic Energy Commission, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) are rare primary brain tumours that are generally incurable, with heterogeneous prognosis and few treatment targets identified. Most oligodendrogliomas have chromosomes 1p/19q co-deletion and an IDH mutation. Here we analysed 51 AO by whole-exome sequencing, identifying previously reported frequent somatic mutations in CIC and FUBP1. We also identified recurrent mutations in TCF12 and in an additional series of 83 AO. Overall, 7.5% of AO are mutated for TCF12, which encodes an oligodendrocyte-related transcription factor. Eighty percent of TCF12 mutations identified were in either the bHLH domain, which is important for TCF12 function as a transcription factor, or were frameshift mutations leading to TCF12 truncated for this domain. We show that these mutations compromise TCF12 transcriptional activity and are associated with a more aggressive tumour type. Our analysis provides further insights into the unique and shared pathways driving AO.


Jung A.C.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Paul Strauss | Job S.,Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT | Ledrappier S.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Paul Strauss | Macabre C.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Paul Strauss | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: Distant metastasis after treatment is observed in about 20% of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). In the absence of any validated robust biomarker, patients at higher risk for metastasis cannot be provided with tailored therapy. To identify prognostic HNSCC molecular subgroups and potential biomarkers, we have conducted genome-wide integrated analysis of four omic sets of data. Experimental Design: Using state-of-the-Art technologies, a core set of 45 metastasizing and 55 nonmetastasizing human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated HNSCC patient samples were analyzed at four different levels: gene expression (transcriptome), DNA methylation (methylome), DNA copy number (genome), and microRNA (miRNA) expression (miRNome). Molecular subgroups were identified by a model-based clustering analysis. Their clinical relevance was evaluated by survival analysis, and functional significance by pathway enrichment analysis. Results: Patient subgroups selected by transcriptome, methylome, or miRNome integrated analysis are associated with shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS). A common subgroup, R1, selected by all three omic approaches, is statistically more significantly associated with MFS than any of the single omic-selected subgroups. R1 and non-R1 samples display similar DNA copy number landscapes, but more frequent chromosomal aberrations are observed in the R1 cluster (especially loss at 13q14.2-3). R1 tumors are characterized by alterations of pathways involved in cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), immune response, and apoptosis. Conclusions: Integration of data across several omic profiles leads to better selection of patients at higher risk, identification of relevant molecular pathways of metastasis, and potential to discover biomarkers and drug targets. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.


Ayoub C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wasylyk C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Li Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Thomas E.,Programme Cartes dIdentite des Tumeurs CIT | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with poor survival. To identify prognostic and diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, we studied ANO1, a recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Methods: High-resolution genomic and transcriptomic microarray analysis and functional studies using HNSCC cell line and CaCC inhibitors. Results: Amplification and overexpression of genes within the 11q13 amplicon are associated with the propensity for future distance metastasis of HPV-negative HNSCC. ANO1 was selected for functional studies based on high correlations, cell surface expression and CaCC activity. ANO1 overexpression in cells that express low endogenous levels stimulates cell movement, whereas downregulation in cells with high endogenous levels has the opposite effect. ANO1 overexpression also stimulates attachment, spreading, detachment and invasion, which could account for its effects on migration. CaCC inhibitors decrease movement, suggesting that channel activity is required for the effects of ANO1. In contrast, ANO1 overexpression does not affect cell proliferation.Interpretation:ANO1 amplification and expression could be markers for distant metastasis in HNSCC. ANO1 overexpression affects cell properties linked to metastasis. Inhibitors of CaCCs could be used to inhibit the tumourigenic properties of ANO1, whereas activators developed to increase CaCC activity could have adverse effects. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

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