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Chiapa de Corzo, Mexico

Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Ruiz L.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness," while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial-or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory. © 2014 Entomological Society of America. Source

Aluja M.,Institute Ecologia | Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while 'Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño'" (partheno- carpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer,' and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. © 2014 Entomological Society of America. Source

Cancino J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Barrera J.F.,Colegio de Mexico | Aluja M.,Institute Ecologia | Liedo P.,Colegio de Mexico
BioControl | Year: 2014

Larvae of Anastrepha ludens and A. serpentina that developed in mango and sapodilla fruits, respectively, were exposed to Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and sequentially exposed as pupae to Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Sequential exposure to both parasitoid species contributed to a decrease in fruit fly emergence due to higher levels of parasitism, which varied according to fruit type. In creole mango, D. longicaudata represented the highest percentage of parasitism. C. haywardi parasitism was greater in pupae from Ataulfo mangos and sapodilla, where the pulp size and volume may have acted as a refuge, allowing fly larvae to escape and leaving a greater number of unparasitised pupae available to C. haywardi. Similar results were obtained under field cage conditions, but the level of parasitism by C. haywardi was lower, suggesting that its effectiveness has some limitations under natural conditions. Our results suggest that both species can exert complementary parasitism, which represents an alternative worth to investigate under open field conditions. © 2014 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). Source

Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Ruiz L.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Lopez G.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

Field and laboratory no-choice oviposition tests were performed to determine whether the 'Persian' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is a host of Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). Trapping and fruit sampling were performed to determine adult population densities and the level of infestation in the two lime orchards. Additionally, unharvested and harvested limes were exposed to sexually mature flies and the number of eggs laid and the immature developmental rates were determined. As a control, parthenocarpic 'Ataulfo' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), a suitable host for A. ludens, were exposed to similar experimental procedures. The fecundity and fertility of adults obtained from limes and mangoes were compared. Our results demonstrate that A. ludens, under forced infestation conditions, oviposit on limes and also on control fruit. However, differences were detected in unharvested and harvested fruit, as unharvested limes were not infested. In the case of harvested fruit, the numbers of eggs laid and survival rates of immatures were significantly lower for 'Persian' limes compared with mangoes. Egg clutches were larger in limes than in mangoes, and most were deposited in the albedo rather than in the pulp. Moreover, oviposition rates were much higher in limes than in mangoes. Despite the fact that few of the immatures reached adulthood, the females obtained from limes were as fecund and fertile as those obtained from mangoes. Although adult A. ludens flies were captured in the two orchards, fruit sampling showed a complete absence of natural infestation among 'Persian' limes. We discuss the importance of our findings for determining the host status for 'Persian' limes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Source

Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Flores S.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The physiological state of an insect is likely the most important endogenous factor influencing resource-oriented behavior, and it varies considerably among individuals. Trials were conducted in mango orchards to study the effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of two fly species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Maquart (Diptera: Tephritidae), to BioLure and NuLure baits. The biological factors of the two fly species that were tested were the following: 1) fertility status-sterile (irradiated) and fertile flies; 2) two types of diets (only sugar and a 3:1 mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast protein; 3) sex, and 4) two sexual maturity conditions (2-4- and 15-18-d-old flies, representing immature and sexually mature flies, respectively, and 2-4-d-old flies treated with methoprene as an artificially induced sexually state male condition). The laboratory-treated flies were released into three different mango orchards. The trials were conducted in four blocks per orchard using eight traps in each block (50:50 BioLure: NuLure). The traps were replaced every 2 d during the 12-d period and the flies per trap per day values were calculated. More protein-fed, fertile, female, immature, and A. obliqua flies were caught compared with the other flies tested. In addition, the traps baited with NuLure attracted more flies than those baited with BioLure. Interaction analyses indicated that the type of bait and the sexual maturity status were the most important factors affecting the responses of the flies. Our study demonstrated that lures attract only a small segment of the fly population, those that have a specific hunger for amino acids-immature flies-and those that were protein-starved. The implications for improved trapping system designs are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America. Source

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