Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA

Comitán de Domínguez, Mexico

Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA

Comitán de Domínguez, Mexico
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PubMed | University of Xalapas and Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: | Journal: Journal of insect physiology | Year: 2016

Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.


PubMed | CINVESTAV, Autonomous University of Sinaloa and Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: | Journal: Journal of insect science (Online) | Year: 2015

The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1C for 19.6 and 12.9min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1C for 19.6min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1C during 12.9min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.


Barradas-Juanz N.,University of Veracruz | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz | Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Dorantes A.,University of Veracruz | Perez-Staples D.,University of Veracruz
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2016

A simplified and improved rearing system was developed for the mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the laboratory. Improvements were made in neonate rearing, larval containers, adult mating cages and the diet, making the rearing protocols more suitable for eventual large-scale rearing. The larval diet was modified by replacing ingredients with cheaper equivalents that also would be more readily available throughout the year. Cedar seeds in the larval diet were replaced with dried cedar leaves, which are available for longer periods during the year. There were no significant differences in pupal weight, duration of pupal development, fertility (egg hatch) and fecundity (number of eggs oviposited) between organisms reared on the new diet or the original diet. However, larval development took 2 d longer using the new diet. A new method for rearing neonate larvae is proposed, which includes the use of well plates that contain the modified diet. This allowed the rearing of larvae from 1st to 3rd instars without the need for fresh material. Neonate larvae reared on this diet were heavier and survived longer compared to larvae reared on fresh cedar leaves. Jars used for the larval rearing phase were replaced with Petri dishes. Mating and oviposition were accomplished inside the insectaries with air flow directed through the rearing cages. This is the first report of rearing H. grandella successfully under artificial conditions for 7 generations. The new rearing protocols will allow the maintenance of larger-sized colonies for further development of bio-rational pest management strategies that could include a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. © International Atomic Energy Agency 2016. Published by the Florida Entomological Society. All rights reserved.


Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Ruiz L.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness," while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial-or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | University of Veracruz and Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

The suitability of mature green Maradol papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in commercial ripeness, while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in spot ripeness. The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called spot ripeness. These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory.


Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Ruiz L.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Perez-Lachaud G.,Colegio de Mexico | Cancino J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Liedo P.,Colegio de Mexico
Biological Control | Year: 2013

The incidence of superparasitism in field populations of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), a solitary larval-pupal endoparasitoid, attacking Anastrepha fruit fly species was determined. From 14,550 fruit fly larvae infesting mango fruits in the field, 68.9% (10,038) survived to the pupal stage. Of these pupae, 3780 (37.7%) were parasitized, of which 2075 (54.9%) were superparasitized. The number of oviposition scars per pupa ranged between 1 and 29, although high numbers were rare. The presence of one or two scars per host was frequent, but only 8.6% of pupae had more than three scars. Fruit size was positively related to the level of infestation by Anastrepha spp. and was significantly correlated with the numbers of parasitized and superparasitized pupae by D. longicaudata. The length and width of host pupae were positively related to superparasitism, and superparasitism was positively correlated with a sex ratio biased toward females. Our data show that superparasitism is present in natural populations of D. longicaudata at remarkable rates and confers some advantageous features such as a female-biased sex ratio. These findings favor the election of this species as a viable biocontrol agent for augmentative releases because the favorable proportion of adult females emerging from superparasitized pupa should contribute to better pest control. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Cancino J.,Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA | Perez-Lachaud G.,Colegio de Mexico | Liedo P.,Colegio de Mexico
BioControl | Year: 2011

We analyzed the relationship among host size, superparasitism and sex-ratio in mass reared Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Individual host pupae of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) were measured (length and width), and the number of oviposition scars per pupa was used as a reliable indicator of superparasitism. The probability of an emerging parasitoid being a female was positively associated with the number of oviposition scars on the host cuticle, but not with the host size. The number of scars per host pupae from which females emerged was slightly but significantly higher than in those pupae giving raise to males. In D. longicaudata, the influence of host size on sex allocation decisions of individual females seems to be overridden by the level of superparasitism, which itself was positively correlated with pupa length. This suggests that larger pupae could experience a higher number of ovipositions than their smaller counterparts, and that a high level of superparasitism may conduct to a female biased sex ratio. We discuss the relevance of these findings which could provide new elements (e. g., the manipulation of superparasitism) for optimizing the mass rearing of this parasitoid. © 2010 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


PubMed | Colegio de Mexico and Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Insect science | Year: 2016

The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.


PubMed | Colegio de Mexico and Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Insects | Year: 2015

Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.


PubMed | Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA IICA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Insects | Year: 2015

The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.

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