Comitán de Domínguez, Mexico
Comitán de Domínguez, Mexico

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Orozco-Davila D.,Programa Moscafrut | De Lourdes Adriano-Anaya M.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | Quintero-Fong L.,Programa Moscafrut | Salvador-Figueroa M.,Autonomous University of Chiapas
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. Copyright: © 2015 Orozco-Dávila et al.

PubMed | International Atomic Energy Agency, Justus Liebig University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Programa Moscafrut
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Insect molecular biology | Year: 2016

The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity (As-sry-) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes inall strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry- promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality.

PubMed | International Atomic Energy Agency, Colegio de Mexico and Programa Moscafrut
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2016

The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

Diaz-Fleischer F.,University of Veracruz | Galvez C.,Programa MOSCAFRUT | Montoya P.,Programa MOSCAFRUT
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2015

Parasitoid reproduction is often limited by disposable time for accessing hosts or egg availability. In the case of synovigenic parasitoids (which mature eggs during their lifetime), theory predicts that egg limitation is infrequent because they are able to replenish their egg supply throughout life. However, this theory does not contemplate the effect of superparasitism on egg load. If superparasitism is applied as a strategy for modulating offspring sex ratio, as extra eggs are normally deposited in each host, it is to be expected that females experience egg limitation, especially when host density is high. In this article, the effect of host density on egg load, oviposition, and sex ratio in the tephritid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was investigated. Specifically we analyzed the rate of oviposition per host and adjustments in offspring sex ratio in response to changes in host density and how these affect egg load. Parasitoids maintained a similar rate of oviposition, independent of host densities, except when host density fluctuated between 25 and 5 hosts per day. Females increased their oviposition rate and parasitism when confronted with 5 hosts, after having experienced a density of 25 hosts. Offspring sex ratio was biased in favor of females at high host density and with increasing prevalence of superparasitism. Results suggest that parasitoids have a strategy for maintaining high egg load in order to mitigate egg limitation, and for adjusting oviposition rate and offspring sex ratio with reference to previous oviposition experience. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

PubMed | University of Veracruz, Programa MOSCAFRUT and Colegio de Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

The field activity of the mixtures of liquid baits and insecticides used in the control of tephritid pests is normally short, both when they are sprayed or when used in trapping or in attract-and-kill devices. A new lure-and-kill device based on Torricellis barometer principle was tested as a long-lasting dispenser for two liquid hydrolysed protein baits mixed with insecticide, GF-120 and Captor 300+malathion, against Anastrepha ludens (Loew) flies of laboratory origin. The dispensers were kept under field conditions for 42 days. Laboratory bioassays for insecticide properties and field cage studies for attraction capacity were carried out on a weekly basis after 22 and 42 days of weathering respectively.Our results demonstrated that both mixtures of insecticides and phagostimulant baits killed up to 80% of the tested flies when they were 42 days old. The attraction capacity of both weathering-exposed mixtures was even higher than fresh insecticidal-bait mixtures after the same period.The device is efficient when used with the liquid baits currently employed in the control of tephritid flies. It also offers a high potential for combining visual stimuli, such as shape and colour, and for improving trapping and bait station designs. Incorporating this new device in trapping and attract-and-kill methods could help to reduce the frequency of servicing of the traps and bait stations and lower their costs. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

Meza J.S.,Programa Moscafrut | Meza J.S.,University of Veracruz | Arredondo J.,Programa Moscafrut | Orozco D.,Programa Moscafrut | Perez-Staples D.,University of Veracruz
Physiological Entomology | Year: 2014

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is currently used to control Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). However, mass-rearing can alter the quality of released males. If males that are mass-reared have behaviours different from those of their wild counterparts, then this may diminish the effectiveness of SIT. Questions remain as to whether wild females may be able to detect the male condition before, during and/or after copulation with a mass-reared male. In the present study, copula duration, female remating, female fecundity and fertility of both mass-reared and wild A. ludens are evaluated. Marked differences are found between mass-reared and wild females. Specifically, mating latency is longer and copula duration is shorter for wild females compared with mass-reared females. Importantly, there are no significant differences in mating latency, copula duration or remating probability between wild females paired with either mass-reared or wild males. All mass-reared females remate, whereas only approximately half of the wild females remate after first mating with either a wild or mass-reared male. Fecundity of wild females mated to either wild or mass-reared males is approximately one-third lower than that of mass-reared females, confirming that mass-reared females may have been selected for high fecundity and are adapted to laboratory conditions. Fertility of females that mate with a wild male for only 10min is not significantly different from that achieved via a full-length copulation. By contrast, females mating with mass-reared males need copulation durations of at least 40min to achieve fertility comparable with that achieved via a full-length copulation. The findings of the present study have important implications for A. ludens controlled through SIT and broaden our understanding on the copulatory and post-copulatory behaviours between wild females and mass-reared males. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

PubMed | Colegio de Mexico, Ursulo Galvan Institute of Technology and Programa Moscafrut
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Arthropod structure & development | Year: 2016

The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D.longicaudata and U.anastrephae larvae were absent in O.hirtus, D.areolatus and D.crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D.longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U.anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D.areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D.longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D.areolatus, D.crawfordi and O.hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U.anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D.longicaudata.

Cancino J.,Programa Moscafrut | Lopez-Arriaga F.,Programa Moscafrut
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Hypoxia periods of 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h combined with temperatures of 15°C, 20°C and 25°C were applied to Diachasmimorpha longicaudata pupae in packaging conditions. Alternating temperatures of 26–20–26°C were applied to pupae in three sequential 4-h periods less than 12 h of hypoxia, and the effect of hypoxia on the pupae was evaluated under ambient conditions in commercial shipping. The emergence, longevity, fecundity and flight ability of adult parasitoids were recorded. The duration of hypoxia (>24 h) and the higher temperature (25°C) significantly reduced the emergence and longevity of adults. The different temperatures, including the variation in temperature combined with hypoxia, showed no significant effect on fecundity or flight ability. The temperature and humidity recorded during commercial shipping under hypoxia did not show any effect on the emergence of parasitoids. As a consequence, hypoxia was only notably significant after 24 h, which occasionally occurs in practical packaging processes. The use of hypoxia for shipping D. longicaudata pupae can be widely recommended, but long shipping periods and high temperatures should still be avoided. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Orozco-Davila D.,Programa Moscafrut | Quintero-Fong L.,Programa Moscafrut
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Hernandez E.,Programa Moscafrut | Escobar A.,Programa Moscafrut | Bravo B.,Programa Moscafrut | Montoya P.,Programa Moscafrut
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2010

We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, "GT" screen towers and "MX" screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fly densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb® and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb® and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb® powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fly sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fly species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs.

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