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San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico

Elizondo-Gonzalez R.,Laboratorio Of Inmunologia Y Virologia | Cruz-Suarez L.E.,Programa Maricultura | Ricque-Marie D.,Programa Maricultura | Mendoza-Gamboa E.,Laboratorio Of Inmunologia Y Virologia | And 2 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) causes a serious infectious disease in birds that results in severe losses in the worldwide poultry industry. Despite vaccination, NDV outbreaks have increased the necessity of alternative prevention and control measures. Several recent studies focused on antiviral compounds obtained from natural resources. Many extracts from marine organisms have been isolated and tested for pharmacological purposes, and their antiviral activity has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide present in the cell wall matrix of brown algae that has been demonstrated to inhibit certain enveloped viruses with low toxicity. This study evaluated the potential antiviral activity and the mechanism of action of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against NDV in the Vero cell line. Methods. The cytotoxicity of fucoidan was determined by the MTT assay. To study its antiviral activity, fusion and plaque-forming unit (PFU) inhibition assays were conducted. The mechanism of action was determined by time of addition, fusion inhibition, and penetration assays. The NDV vaccine strain (La Sota) was used in the fusion inhibition assays. PFU and Western blot experiments were performed using a wild-type lentogenic NDV strain. Results: Fucoidan exhibited antiviral activity against NDV La Sota, with an obtained IS50 >2000. In time of addition studies, we observed viral inhibition in the early stages of infection (0-60 min post-infection). The inhibition of viral penetration experiments with a wild-type NDV strain supported this result, as these experiments demonstrated a 48% decrease in viral infection as well as reduced HN protein expression. Ribavirin, which was used as an antiviral control, exhibited lower antiviral activity than fucoidan and high toxicity at active doses. In the fusion assays, the number of syncytia was significantly reduced (70% inhibition) when fucoidan was added before cleavage of the fusion protein, perhaps indicating a specific interaction between fucoidan and the F0 protein. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fucoidan from C. okamuranus represents a potential low-toxicity antiviral compound for the poultry industry, and our findings provide a better understanding of the mode of action of sulfated polysaccharides. © 2012 Elizondo-Gonzalez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Two feeding trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of diets containing corn or peanut grains naturally contaminated with aflatoxins on the growth, feed intake, survival, and histological response of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg-1 of total aflatoxins (TA) and fed to L. vannamei juveniles for 28 days. In trial 2, six experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 μg kg-1 TA and fed to L. vannamei juveniles for 64 days. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly affected by the presence of aflatoxins from naturally contaminated grains. Feed conversion rate increased significantly from a level of inclusion of 60 μg kg-1. Survival was significantly reduced only for shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1000 and 2000 μg kg-1 TA. Shrimp exposed to higher aflatoxin inclusion levels presented significantly lower lipid vacuole levels in R-cells (12-28%), lower B-cell activity, and lower mitotic E-cell activity. Tubular epithelial atrophy increased from the inclusion level of 20 μg kg-1. Hepatopancreatocyte sloughing was significantly higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1000 and 2000 μg kg-1 TA. It is worth noting that shrimp fed 40 μg kg-1 TA presented a high hepatopancreatocyte sloughing coefficient. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of aflatoxins, even at low levels, reduces feed intake and weight gain, and alters the cells of the hepatopancreas. Source

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