Herrera M.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda |
Islam A.B.M.M.K.,University of Dhaka |
Herrera A.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda |
Martin P.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda |
And 8 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013
Purpose: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) actively participate in reciprocal communication with tumor cells and with other cell types in the microenvironment, contributing to a tumor-permissive neighborhood and promoting tumor progression. The aim of this study is the characterization of how CAFs from primary human colon tumors promote migration of colon cancer cells. Experimental design: Primary CAF cultures from 15 primary human colon tumors were established. Their enrichment in CAFs was evaluated by the expression of various epithelial and myofibroblast specific markers. Coculture assays of primary CAFs with different colon tumor cells were performed to evaluate promigratory CAF-derived effects on cancer cells. Gene expression profiles were developed to further investigate CAF characteristics. Results: Coculture assays showed significant differences in fibroblast-derived paracrine promigratory effects on cancer cells. Moreover, the association between CAFs' promigratory effects on cancer cells and classic fibroblast activation or stemness markers was observed. CAF gene expression profiles were analyzed by microarray to identify deregulated genes in different promigratory CAFs. The gene expression signature, derived from the most protumorogenic CAFs, was identified. Interestingly, this "CAF signature" showed a remarkable prognostic value for the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer. Moreover, this prognostic value was validated in an independent series of 142 patients with colon cancer, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), with a set of four genes included in the "CAF signature." Conclusions: In summary, these studies show for the first time the heterogeneity of primary CAFs' effect on colon cancer cell migration. A CAF gene expression signature able to classify patients with colon cancer into high- and low-risk groups was identified. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source
Valls G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Codina M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Miller R.K.,University of Barcelona |
Valle-Perez B.D.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012
A role for Rac1 GTPase in canonical Wnt signaling has recently been demonstrated, showing that it is required for β-catenin translocation to the nucleus. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Rac1 stimulation by Wnt. Upregulation of Rac1 activity by Wnt3a temporally correlated with enhanced p120-catenin binding to Rac1 and Vav2. Vav2 and Rac1 association with p120-catenin was modulated by phosphorylation of this protein, which was stimulated upon serine/threonine phosphorylation by CK1 and inhibited by tyrosine phosphorylation by Src or Fyn. Acting on these two post-translational modifications, Wnt3a induced the release of p120-catenin from E-cadherin, enabled the interaction of p120-catenin with Vav2 and Rac1, and facilitated Rac1 activation by Vav2. Given that p120- catenin depletion disrupts gastrulation in Xenopus, we analyzed p120-catenin mutants for their ability to rescue this phenotype. In contrast to the wild-type protein or other controls, p120-catenin point mutants that were deficient in the release from E-cadherin or in Vav2 or Rac1 binding failed to rescue p120-catenin depletion. Collectively, these results indicate that binding of p120-catenin to Vav2 and Rac1 is required for the activation of this GTPase upon Wnt signaling. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source
Geradts J.,Duke University |
De Herreros A.G.,Programa de Recerca en Cancer |
Su Z.,Duke University |
Burchette J.,Duke University |
And 2 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2011
Snail1 and ZEB1 are transcriptional repressors that drive tumor initiation and metastasis in animal models. Snail1 and ZEB1 are frequently coexpressed in tumor cell lines, suggesting that these factors may cooperate to promote tumor progression. However, coexpression of these transcriptional repressors in primary human cancer specimens has not been investigated. Previous studies assessed expression in primary breast cancers of Snail1 messenger RNA, which does not reflect Snail1 activity because Snail1 is subject to posttranslational modifications that inhibit its nuclear localization/activity. In the current study, using breast tumor cell lines of known Snail1 and ZEB1 expression status, we developed immunohistochemistry protocols for detecting nuclear Snail1 and nuclear ZEB1 proteins. Using these protocols, we assessed nuclear Snail1 and nuclear ZEB1 expressions in primary human breast cancers of varying subtypes (n = 78). Nuclear Snail1 and estrogen receptor α expressions were inversely associated in primary breast cancers, and nuclear Snail1 was expressed in approximately 80% of triple-negative breast cancers (lacking estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression). In contrast, nuclear ZEB1 was expressed at a significantly lower frequency in these breast cancers. Notably, nuclear Snail1 protein was detected in 45% of ductal carcinoma in situ specimens (n = 29), raising the important possibility that nuclear Snail1 expression in early stage breast lesions may predict future development of invasive breast cancer. Collectively, our studies demonstrate frequent expression of nuclear Snail1, but not nuclear ZEB1, in invasive, triple-negative breast cancers as well as in intraductal carcinomas. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Rodriguez M.I.,Institute Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra |
Gonzalez-Flores A.,Institute Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra |
Dantzer F.,UMR 7175 |
Collard J.,Netherlands Cancer Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2011
Snail1 is a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been implicated in key tumor biological processes such as invasion and metastasis. It has been previously shown that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) knockdown, but not PARP inhibition, downregulates the expression of Snail1. In this study we have characterized a novel regulatory mechanism controlling Snail1 protein expression through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The effect is not only limited to repression of Snail1 transcription but also to downregulated Snail1 protein stability. PARP-1 (but not PARP-2) poly(ADP) ribosylates Snail1, both in vivo and in vitro, and interacts with Snail1, an association that is sensitive to PARP inhibitors. PARP inhibition has also clear effects on EMT phenotype of different tumor cells, including Snail1 downregulation, E-cadherin upregulation, decreased cell elongation and invasiveness. Therefore, this study reveals a new regulatory mechanism of Snail1 activation through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation with consequences in malignant transformation through EMT. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source
Montserrat N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Mozos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Llobet D.,University of Lleida |
Dolcet X.,University of Lleida |
And 4 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2012
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is thought to be implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. To investigate its role in myometrial invasion, samples from 42 stage I (confined to the corpus) endometrioid endometrial carcinomas were analyzed. All E-cadherin repressors (SNAI1, SNAI2 (SLUG), ZEB1, HMGA2, and TWIST1) had a higher expression in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas than in normal endometrium (P < .0001), whereas CDH1 (E-cadherin gene) tended to be lower. In comparison with nonmyoinvasive (stage IA) tumors, those with deep myometrial invasion (stage IC) had increased messenger RNA expression of SLUG, ZEB1, and HMGA2 (P < .001). Furthermore, samples from the myoinvasive front of deeply invasive tumors had higher levels of SLUG, ZEB1, and HMGA2 than the corresponding superficial samples. Immunohistochemical analysis of these cases revealed that the decrease in E-cadherin was concordant with an increase in Snail and Twist protein expression. Trying to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, we initially produced persistent activation of this pathway in Ishikawa cells. The cell line was infected with lentiviruses carrying the V600E mutation of BRAF, inducing loss of β-catenin, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin and increase in vimentin and Snail. These changes were mediated by ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was also increased at the myoinvasive front. Furthermore, MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 reversed the mesenchymal phenotype. Our findings suggest that epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulators are implicated in myometrial invasion of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and may be potential therapeutic targets through the MAPK/ERK pathway. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source