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Campos J.T.,State University Londrina | Morotti F.,State University Londrina | Bergamo L.Z.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Costa C.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols utilize progesterone (P4) as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3%) became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516), 166 (32.1%) were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

Santana E.S.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Rocha T.M.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | de Souza Barnabe A.C.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | de Alcantara J.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group) - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 -supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%) and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Bandeira M.G.L.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia Do Ceara | Reboucas G.G.,Federal Rural University of the Semiarid Region | De Oliveira Filho R.D.,Federal University of Ceará | Abrantes M.R.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria | Year: 2016

Because of the large increase in resistance by pathogenic microorganisms to multiple drugs, there is growing demand for natural alternatives. Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, known as lemon balm is popularly used for various therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics and of extract and protein fraction obtained from lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown) on Staphylococcus spp. from animal origin foods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 23 samples of various foods. The bacteria underwent the antibiogram diffusion technique in agar with the following antibiotics: oxacillin, gentamycin, amikacin, ampicillin and cephalexin. Then, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lemon balm at two different concentrations, one from the crude extract and another from a fraction with 60-90% saturation in ammonium sulfate. There was 100% resistance of the strains to ampicillin. Concerning the following antibiotics amikacin, cephalexin, gentamicin and oxacillin, there was 8%, 8%, 13% and 87% of resistant strains respectively. In trials with the protein of the crude extract and of the fraction with 60-90% saturation in ammonium sulfate, 17.3% and 56.5% of the strains were inhibited, respectively. Few studies have linked the use of lemon balm to inhibition of microorganisms in foods and the results of this work indicate a significant antibacterial activity, especially in multi-drug resistant strains. The lemon balm can be of great importance for the food industry, being a potential natural preservative for food.

Da Costa Araujo D.L.,UFPI | De Oliveira M.E.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Lopes J.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | De Azevedo Alves A.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

This study was accomplished to evaluate the behavior and performance of goats in to grazing on grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst) Hack. cv. Planaltina submitted to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% BW/day, under continuous grazing. The experimental design to assess the grazing behaviour was randomized blocks in a split-plot with five replicates within the block. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months May and June. While for evaluation of animal performance was in complete block design with five replicates within the block. The different forage allowance did not cause structural changes in the pasture, except in height. However, there was an increase of dead material, leaf/stem ratio and reducing of height during the grazing period. The behavioral variables were not affected by forage allowance, except for the time of displacement, whereby goats spent more time in pastures with offer of 11% BW. The goats remained most part of the time in grazing and idle, corresponding to 89% and 5% of the evaluation time, respectively. Higher bit rate was observed in June, among the offerings, and 15 and 19% BW. The ingestive and grazing behaviour in goats is changed by the accumulation of dead material and stem in pasture from Andropogon grass during at rainy season. The forage supply 11% of BW increases the time of displacement of goats grazing on Andropogon grass. The management of grazing Andropogon grass with forage allowance being 11 and 19% of BW provides low weight gains in goats during the rainy season.

Batistel F.,University of Sao Paulo | de SouzaI J.,University of Sao Paulo | Ticiani E.,Santa Catarina State University | Baldin M.,Curso de Pos graduacao em Ciencia Animal | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate different herbage allowances in stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis), on the herbage disappearance rate (HDR) and milk yield in crossbred Holstein x Gir cows. Thirty animals were assigned to three different herbage allowances (HA), ranging from 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0% BW. There was effect of HA on the HDR (P0.001). Increasing the HA in one unit had effect on the HDR increasing by 140.0kg ha-1 day-1. There was effect of leaf:stem ratio on milk yield (P0.05). The increasing in supplying herbage allowances did not resulted in increased milk yield because the management for herbage allowance and herbage growth.

Mazutti K.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Costa L.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Nascimento L.V.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Filho T.F.,Imunova Analises Biologicas Ltda | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used as feed additives to promote piglet growth at weaning, through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. However, few studies have assessed the influence of these antibiotics on the immune response of nursery pigs, as well as the relation between performance, health, and immunity of animals that receive feed additives. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of colistin and tylosin when used as feed additives on the performance, incidence of diarrhea, and immune response of nursery pigs. In this study, 72 weaned pigs (average age, 28 days) were allotted into one of three treatment groups: A control group (feed with no antibiotics), tylosin group (feed containing 22 ppm tylosin), and colistin group (feed containing 20 ppm colistin). Weekly, during a five week period, the average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio of the pigs were evaluated. Stools were scored daily, in accordance with a fecal texture scale. Blood samples were collected on the day of housing (d0) and on d7, d21, d28, and d35 for immune cell phenotyping. The results of this study showed that piglets in both the colistin and tylosin groups exhibited a significantly higher average daily feed intake, resulting in a higher body weight at the end of the experimental period (d35) when compared with piglets from the control group. Colistin and tylosin also significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhea. Colistin and tylosin modulated the piglets' immune responses, particularly on d28, by changing the percentage of circulating B lymphocytes, CD4+CD8+ T cells, and the CD4:CD8 ratio.

Da Costa Araujo D.L.,Federal University of Piauí | De Oliveira M.E.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Lopes J.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Alves A.D.A.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics and the demographic patterns of tillering in the grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst) Hack. cv. Planaltina subjected to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% of the LW, under continuous grazing by goats. The experimental design for the evaluation of the pasture morphogenetic characteristics was set in (two) random blocks, with six replications (tussocks) within the block. To evaluate the tillering dynamics and population density, we adopted the experimental design of (two) random blocks, in a split-plot arrangement. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months of April, May and June. Forage allowances did not affect the leaf elongation rate, leaf senescence or the number of live leaves. The leaf appearance rate was highest at the masses of 11 and 15% of the LW. Managing the pasture with a forage allowance of 19% of the LW increases the stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan and the lengths of leaf and stem. The number of vegetative tillers and the tiller appearance and survival rates are not affected by the forage allowances from 11 to 19% of the LW.

Zanini G.D.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Santos G.T.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal | Sbrissia A.F.,Santa Catarina State University
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Aruana guineagrass pastures (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana) subjected to rotational stocking by sheep. The treatments corresponded to grazing when swards reached 95 or 98% of interception of incident light (LI) until post-grazing heights of 10 and 15cm and were allocated to experimental units (plots of 196 m2), according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design, with three replications, from January to May 2009. The morphogenetic assessments included: leaf appearance and elongation rates (LAR and LER), phyllochron (PHY) and leaf life span (LLS). Structural evaluations assessed the number of green leaves (NGL), dead leaves (NDL) and expanded leaves (NEL) per tiller, tiller population density (TPD) and final leaf length (FLL). The pre-grazing sward height relatively constant during the experimental period, with values ranging between 30 and 40 cm for treatments of 95 and 98% of LI, respectively, indicating potential for the development and use of management practices based on pasture conditions goals. The morphogenetic and structural characteristics were influenced by the frequency and intensity of grazing adopted, as well as by the seasons, implying that the capacity and speed for the recovery of Aruana grass pastures after grazing depend mainly on the management and edaphoclimatic conditions. The best grazing management for Aruana guineagrass is 95% canopy light interception, i.e., 30 cm pre-grazing height pastures interrupted when reaching 15 cm residue. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

PubMed | Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica and Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia Animal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Currently, mammary neoplasms in female canines are a serious problem in veterinary clinics. In addition, the canine species is an excellent disease model for human oncology because of the biological and genetic similarities between the species. Cytogenetics has allowed further study of the characterization of neoplasms in canines. We hypothesized that the use of a direct preparation protocol for mitotic chromosome analysis would provide a simple and low cost protocol for use in all laboratories. The objective of this method is to display in a few hours of dividing cells just like the time of collection since cell division in tissue can be obtained. Ten female canines with the spontaneous occurrence of mammary neoplasia were used to test a pioneering direct preparation protocol to obtain mitotic chromosomes. The excised breast tumor tissue fragments were subjected to the protocol consisting of treatment with colchicine, treatment with hypotonic solution, and fixation. Mitotic chromosomes were absent in cell suspensions of only two samples among the 10 materials analyzed, based on the analysis of five blades for each preparation obtained. So, the cell suspension obtained allowed for the observation of eight tissue samples viable for cytogenetic analysis, five of which had excellent numbers of mitotic chromosomes. However, the technique was unsuccessful in producing high-quality cell suspensions because of inadequate condensation and scattering of chromosomes. While adjustments to methodological procedures are needed, this protocol represents a low cost and simplified method to study the cytogenetics of canine tumors.

Rodrigues R.C.,Federal University of Maranhão | De Lima A.J.T.,Mestre em Ciencia Animal | De Araujo R.A.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco | De Jesus A.P.R.,Federal University of Maranhão | And 6 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha) in silvopastoral systems (SSP's) composed of babassu palms (Attalea speciosa) and grass monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The study followed a completely randomized design, with the arrangement in split plots with six replicates for the evaluation of agronomic characteristics and 30 repetitions for the morphogenic and structural characteristics. The plots were divided into pasture environments with different palm densities (monoculture, 80, 131, 160 palms.ha-1), and the subplots were divided into the different seasons (rainy and dry). Total forage production was affected (P<0.05) by the interaction between palm density and season. The rainy season, compared to the dry season, presented higher total forage production, whereas among silvopastoral systems, the one with 80 palms.ha-1 presented higher production. The same pattern was found for leaf production. In the rainy season the production of culms increased, as did the ratio leaf.culm-1. Regarding the accumulation of dead material, the only observed difference was a smaller accumulation in the dry season for pastures with 160 palms.ha-1. In the rainy season, the leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate, and final leaf length had higher values in the silvopastoral system with 131 palm.ha-1, whereas during the dry season, these variables only differed in the monoculture system. Tiller elongation rate and the phyllochron were not affected (P> 0.05) by pastoral system during the rainy season, but in the dry period, higher responses were obtained in SSPs. Overall, SSPs with 80 palms.ha-1 favored the agronomic characteristics of pastures. Morphogenic and structural characteristics were favored by increasing palm densities. Leaf senescence and duration were not afected by the system.

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