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Porto Alegre, Brazil

da Silva Junior F.M.R.,Grande Rio University | Silva P.F.,Grande Rio University | Garcia E.M.,Grande Rio University | Klein R.D.,Grande Rio University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2013

In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of water-soluble elements from a contaminated soil via gavage in a single dose, simulating a geophagy event. The contaminated soil was collected in a field located in an industrial complex, and the control soil was collected in a reference area. Metabolic and behavioral parameters in Wistar male rats were measured after 24 and 96 h of gavage. After 96 h, the major organs were weighed, blood was collected to check hematological parameters, the bone marrow was taken for the micronucleus test, and the liver was used for evaluating the total antioxidant capacity, lipoperoxidation and protein carbonylation. Animals exposed to contaminated soil presented a few significant alterations by comparison with control animals: TBARS and protein carbonyl levels increased, the relative weight of the kidneys increased, metabolic parameters (body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine and feces production) depressed and there was behavioral alteration. These findings suggest that soils impacted by atmospheric contaminants can affect the organism physiological status jeopardizing the health of populations living in industrial areas. Finally, this study reassures that ingestion of potentially contaminated soils, even for short periods of time, can cause health risks. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Coronas M.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Coronas M.V.,Inagemp Instituto Nacional Of Genetica Medica Populacional | Coronas M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Vaz Rocha J.A.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Wood preservation activities and related compounds are a problem since these areas have major environmental contamination liabilities which compromise the health of the surrounding population and the integrity of ecological processes. The present study evaluated an area influenced by soil contamination arising from the activities of a deactivated wood treatment plant. The presence and effect of mutagenic compounds in environmental samples were used as markers of exposure together with the evaluation biomarkers of genetic damage in children. Organic extracts from samples of public source water and from fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) were evaluated for mutagenic potential using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Children living in the area surrounding the plant were analyzed for genetic damage assessed by the comet assay in lymphocytes and micronucleus test (MN) in lymphocytes and oral mucosa and compared to a group living in an area outside the preferential quadrant of atmospheric dispersion and in opposition to the drainage at the site. The mutagenic effect and PAHs concentrations found were similar to studies that evaluated intensely occupied urban areas and those under industrial influence. The MN frequencies in lymphocytes and binucleated cells in the oral mucosa were significantly higher in the risk group. No significant differences were observed in the other genetic damage biomarkers evaluated. The presence of pollutants with a mutagenic and carcinogenic effect on the PM2.5 and the increased in some biomarkers indicate that the population is potentially exposed to substances capable of causing adverse health effects and atmospheric airborne is a possible exposure route. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaffer M.I.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lemos A.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Apel M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rocha J.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pohren R.D.S.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | Pohren R.D.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rocha J.A.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | Leal K.A.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | And 2 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012

Soil can be a storage place and source of pollutants for interfacial environments. This study looked at a site contaminated with wood preservatives as a source of mutagens, defined routes and extent of the dispersion of these contaminants by particle remobilization and atmospheric deposition, considering an evaluation of risk to human health by quantifying mutagenic risk. Soil sampling sites were chosen at gradually increasing distances (150, 500 and 1700. m) from SI (industrial area pool) and indoor dust (pool in an area at risk at 385. m and at 1700. m). Mutagenesis was evaluated in the Salmonella/microsome assay, TA98, TA97a and TA100 strains with and without S9 mix, YGs strains 1041, 1042 and 1024 for nitrocompounds. Acid extracts were analyzed to define the effects of metals and organics for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitroderivates, besides concentrations of these compounds and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Risk to human health was obtained from the relation between the quantified potential of mutagenic risk and estimated soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. Metal concentrations showed a gradient of responses with As, Cr and Cu (total metal) or Cr and Cu (fraction available) higher for SI. However, mutagenic effects of the mixtures did not show this grading. Site SR1700, without a response, was characterized as a reference. In organic extracts, the mutagenesis responses showed the mobility of these compounds from the source. In the surrounding area, a smaller pattern similar to SI was observed at SR150, and at the other sites elevated values of direct mutagenesis at SR500 and diminished effects at SR1700. Tests with YG strains indicated that nitrated compounds have a significant effect on the direct mutagenesis found, except SR500. The investigation of indoor dust in the surrounding area enabled confirmation of the particle resuspension route and atmospheric deposition, showing responses in mutagenicity biomarkers, PAH concentrations and PCP dosage similar to SI. The range of values obtained, considering the soil masses needed to induce mutagenicity was 0.02 to 0.33. g, indicating a high risk associated with human populations exposed, since these values found surpass the standard estimate of 200. mg/day of rate of soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. The study showed that it is essential to evaluate the extent of contamination from the soil to delimit remedial measures and avoid damage to the ecological balance and to human health. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Coronas M.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Coronas M.V.,Inagemp Instituto Nacional Of Genetica Medica Populacional | Bavaresco J.,FEPAM | Rocha J.A.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais | And 6 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

The wood treatment process uses substances that generate hazardous compounds that may contaminate environmental compartments. In the present study, an area under influence of a deactivated wood treatment plant was investigated to evaluate past air pollution and to try to understand local air dispersion. Attic dust samples were collected from eight residences around the plant and from two residences outside this area, as reference samples. The presence of copper, chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mutagenic activity using Salmonella/microsome assay was evaluated. The residences close to the entrance to the plant were the most affected, according to potentially toxic elements analysis. The PCP concentration was 0.49. mg/kg and the total PAHs content ranged from 0.40 to 13.31. μg/g with greater dispersion than potentially toxic elements. The highest mutagenesis values were 15,905 and 10,399 revertants/g of dust in the absence and presence of S9 mix (mammalian metabolic activation), respectively. Samples in which the total PAHs concentration was less than 2. μg/g no mutagenic effects were observed, including the residences in the reference area. The contribution of PAHs to mutagenesis was 10 percent, indicating that other compounds may contribute to the mutagenic effect. These results suggest that the population was or is potentially exposed to substances with strong effects on health. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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