Salmonella mutagenicity assessment of airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, differing in anthropogenic influences and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels
Pereira T.S.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Gotor G.N.,Ramon Llull University |
Beltrami L.S.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Nolla C.G.,Ramon Llull University |
And 4 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2010
Urban areas are both major sources and major targets of air pollution. The atmospheric environment receives diverse chemical substances, including genotoxic agents that may affect human health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the atmospheric quality in two urban areas in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), under the influence of greater (Site 1) or lesser (Site 2) anthropogenic sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of environmental interest were quantified and the Salmonella/microsome assay was used for the measurement of mutagenicity. Organic compounds extracted from the airborne particulate matter were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect PAHs of interest (known or possible carcinogens). The organic extracts were also tested for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1021 and YG1024, with or without S9 activation. At Site 1, benzo[. ghi]perylene (BghiP) and indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene (IP) were found at higher concentrations and mutagenicity (revertants per μg extract) varied from 1.0 ± 0.25 (TA98, no S9) to 5.2 ± 0.45 (TA98, S9). At Site 2, BghiP and IP were present in larger amounts and the mutagenic responses ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 revertants per μg (both in TA98, S9). The occurrence of BghiP and IP may be related to vehicular emissions. These and the other PAHs studied, as well as the nitro compounds, may contribute to the mutagenicity found in these airborne particles. © 2010.
da Silva Junior F.M.R.,Grande Rio University |
Silva P.F.,Grande Rio University |
Garcia E.M.,Grande Rio University |
Klein R.D.,Grande Rio University |
And 4 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2013
In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of water-soluble elements from a contaminated soil via gavage in a single dose, simulating a geophagy event. The contaminated soil was collected in a field located in an industrial complex, and the control soil was collected in a reference area. Metabolic and behavioral parameters in Wistar male rats were measured after 24 and 96 h of gavage. After 96 h, the major organs were weighed, blood was collected to check hematological parameters, the bone marrow was taken for the micronucleus test, and the liver was used for evaluating the total antioxidant capacity, lipoperoxidation and protein carbonylation. Animals exposed to contaminated soil presented a few significant alterations by comparison with control animals: TBARS and protein carbonyl levels increased, the relative weight of the kidneys increased, metabolic parameters (body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine and feces production) depressed and there was behavioral alteration. These findings suggest that soils impacted by atmospheric contaminants can affect the organism physiological status jeopardizing the health of populations living in industrial areas. Finally, this study reassures that ingestion of potentially contaminated soils, even for short periods of time, can cause health risks. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Brito K.C.T.D.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Lemos C.T.D.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Rocha J.A.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Mielli A.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013
This study compared genotoxicity in bacteria, plants and cell cultures in areas at risk of exposure to airborne pollution. Genotoxicity of moderately polar organic extracts of PM2.5 from areas with urban airborne pollution (Site 1) and urban-industrial pollution (Site 2) was evaluated using microsuspension assays in Salmonella/microsome, micronucleus test with Tradescantia pallida (Trad-MN) with acute exposure, and in V79 (V79-MN) cells, Comet assay in V79 and human lymphocyte, besides Trad-MN in situ at Site 1. In the Salmonella/microsome assay all samples presented frameshift mutagenic activity (-/+S9), most intense at Site 2 (rev/m3). The presence of nitro-PAHs and hydroxylamines in PM2.5 was shown by positive mutagenic responses with YG1021 and YG1024. In tests with Trad-MN, no significant genotoxic responses were found (MN %). In V79-MN a genotoxic response was not found. The Comet assay damages were found in the DNA at Site 1 in both cell systems. Non-detection of genotoxicity with Trad-MN at sites or in environmental samples from polluted areas detected using other biomarkers suggests the need for careful evaluation when biomonitoring genotoxic compounds using plants. The microsuspension assay in Salmonella/microsome was sensitive to detect and identify different classes of airborne mutagenic compounds present in fine particulate matter in Porto Alegre city, showing that monitoring air quality with PM2.5 using this methodology is relevant. © 2013.
Lemos A.T.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Lemos A.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Coronas M.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Coronas M.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012
Organisms in the environment are exposed to a mixture of pollutants. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze the mutagenicity of organic and inorganic responses in two fractions of particulates (TSP and PM2.5) and extracts (organic and aqueous). The mutagenicity of organic and aqueous particulate matter extracts from urban-industrial and urban-residential areas was evaluated by Salmonella/microsome assay, through the microsuspension method, using strain TA98 with and without liver metabolization. Additionally, strains YG1021 and YG1024 (nitro-sensitive) were used for organic extracts. Aqueous extracts presented negative responses for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity was detected in 50% of the samples. In these extracts the presence of potential bioavailable metals was identified. All organic extracts presented mutagens with a higher potential associated with PM2.5. This study presents a first characterization of PM2.5 in Brazil, through the Salmonella/microsome assay. The evaluation strategy detected the anthropic influence of groups of compounds characteristically found in urban and industrial areas, even in samples with PM values in accordance with quality standards. Thus, the use of a genotoxic approach in areas under different anthropic influences will favor the adoption of preventive measures in the health/environment relation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Pohren R.D.S.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Pohren R.D.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Rocha J.A.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Leal K.A.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
And 2 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012
Soil can be a storage place and source of pollutants for interfacial environments. This study looked at a site contaminated with wood preservatives as a source of mutagens, defined routes and extent of the dispersion of these contaminants by particle remobilization and atmospheric deposition, considering an evaluation of risk to human health by quantifying mutagenic risk. Soil sampling sites were chosen at gradually increasing distances (150, 500 and 1700. m) from SI (industrial area pool) and indoor dust (pool in an area at risk at 385. m and at 1700. m). Mutagenesis was evaluated in the Salmonella/microsome assay, TA98, TA97a and TA100 strains with and without S9 mix, YGs strains 1041, 1042 and 1024 for nitrocompounds. Acid extracts were analyzed to define the effects of metals and organics for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitroderivates, besides concentrations of these compounds and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Risk to human health was obtained from the relation between the quantified potential of mutagenic risk and estimated soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. Metal concentrations showed a gradient of responses with As, Cr and Cu (total metal) or Cr and Cu (fraction available) higher for SI. However, mutagenic effects of the mixtures did not show this grading. Site SR1700, without a response, was characterized as a reference. In organic extracts, the mutagenesis responses showed the mobility of these compounds from the source. In the surrounding area, a smaller pattern similar to SI was observed at SR150, and at the other sites elevated values of direct mutagenesis at SR500 and diminished effects at SR1700. Tests with YG strains indicated that nitrated compounds have a significant effect on the direct mutagenesis found, except SR500. The investigation of indoor dust in the surrounding area enabled confirmation of the particle resuspension route and atmospheric deposition, showing responses in mutagenicity biomarkers, PAH concentrations and PCP dosage similar to SI. The range of values obtained, considering the soil masses needed to induce mutagenicity was 0.02 to 0.33. g, indicating a high risk associated with human populations exposed, since these values found surpass the standard estimate of 200. mg/day of rate of soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. The study showed that it is essential to evaluate the extent of contamination from the soil to delimit remedial measures and avoid damage to the ecological balance and to human health. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kaffer M.I.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Lemos A.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Apel M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Rocha J.V.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012
Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Souza Pohren R.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
De Souza Pohren R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Da Costa T.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Vargas V.M.F.,Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais |
Vargas V.M.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013
Soil is one of the compartments most affected by the accumulation of pollutants from anthropic sources. The present study allowed the identification of the sensitivity of the Allium cepa test system to evaluate solubilized soils from two points in the area contaminated by heavy metals, as well as a point of reference. They are all located in the municipality of Triunfo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The parameters used for evaluation were germination index, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations (CA), and index of mutagenicity index (IMUT) presented by A. cepa. Significant responses of CA were observed in the two samples of contaminated soil, but IMUT was significant only for soil 3. The toxicity and cytotoxicity indexes did not show significant responses. The results indicate that the A. cepa plant test system was sensitive to investigate the genotoxicity of the soil samples and can be used as an alert in studies on soil contamination. It was partially concordant with the mutagenic responses already detected for the Salmonella/microsome assay in previous studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
PubMed | Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, São Paulo State University and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015
Wood preservation activities and related compounds are a problem since these areas have major environmental contamination liabilities which compromise the health of the surrounding population and the integrity of ecological processes. The present study evaluated an area influenced by soil contamination arising from the activities of a deactivated wood treatment plant. The presence and effect of mutagenic compounds in environmental samples were used as markers of exposure together with the evaluation biomarkers of genetic damage in children. Organic extracts from samples of public source water and from fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) were evaluated for mutagenic potential using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Children living in the area surrounding the plant were analyzed for genetic damage assessed by the comet assay in lymphocytes and micronucleus test (MN) in lymphocytes and oral mucosa and compared to a group living in an area outside the preferential quadrant of atmospheric dispersion and in opposition to the drainage at the site. The mutagenic effect and PAHs concentrations found were similar to studies that evaluated intensely occupied urban areas and those under industrial influence. The MN frequencies in lymphocytes and binucleated cells in the oral mucosa were significantly higher in the risk group. No significant differences were observed in the other genetic damage biomarkers evaluated. The presence of pollutants with a mutagenic and carcinogenic effect on the PM2.5 and the increased in some biomarkers indicate that the population is potentially exposed to substances capable of causing adverse health effects and atmospheric airborne is a possible exposure route.
PubMed | Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis | Year: 2015
Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 g/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 g/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.30.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.40.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.84.23 (-S9) and 17.52.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.30.41 () and for other cell types a variation from 0.60.73 (), nuclear buds to 57.524.92 (), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.112.44; 7.311.66 and 0.92.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied.
PubMed | Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015
Several have been performed to evaluate the mutagenicity of soil samples in urban and industrial areas. The use of uncontaminated reference areas has been an obstacle to the study of environmental mutagenesis. The study aimed to indicate a methodology to define reference areas in studies of environmental contamination based on Ambient Background Concentration of metallic elements associated with the Salmonella/microsome assay. We looked at three potential reference areas, two of them close by the industrial sources of contamination (So Jernimo reference, near the coal-fired power plant, and Triunfo reference, near the wood preservative plant), but not directly influenced by them and an area located inside a protected area (Itapu reference). We also carried out chemical analyses of some metals to plot the metal profile of these potential reference areas and define basal levels of these metals in the soils. After examining the mutagenicity of the inorganic extracts using strains TA98, TA97a, and TA100, in the presence and absence of S9 mix, we indicated the So Jernimo reference and the Itapu reference as two sites that could be used in future studies of mutagenicity of soils in southern Brazil. The association between a mutagenicity bioassay and the Ambient Background Concentration seems to be a useful method to indicate the reference areas in studies of contamination by environmental mutagens, where these results were corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis.