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Garmendia J.,Programa de Infeccion e Inmunidad | Garmendia J.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Garmendia J.,Public University of Navarra | Morey P.,Programa de Infeccion e Inmunidad | And 4 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

The human respiratory tract of individuals with normal lung function maintains a fine-tuned balance, being asymptomatically colonised by the normal microbiota in the upper airways and sterile in the lower tract. This equilibrium may be disrupted by the exposure to insults such as cigarette smoke. In the respiratory tract, the complex and noxious nature of inhaled cigarette smoke alters host-microorganisminteraction dynamics at all anatomical levels, causing infections in many cases. Moreover, continuous exposure to cigarette smoke itself causes deleterious effects on the host that can trigger the development of chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. COPD is an irreversible airflow obstruction associated with emphysema, fibrosis, mucus hypersecretion and persistent colonisation of the lower airways by opportunistic pathogens. COPD patients keep a stable (without exacerbation) but progressively worsening condition and suffer periodic exacerbations caused, in most cases, by infections. Although smoking and smoking-associated diseases are associated with a high risk of infection, most therapies aim to reduce inflammatory parameters, but do not necessarily take into account the presence of persistent colonisers. The effect of cigarette smoke on host-pathogen interaction dynamics in the respiratory tract, together with current and novel therapies, is discussed. Copyright©ERS 2012. Source


Marti-Lliteras P.,Programa de Infeccion e Inmunidad | Marti-Lliteras P.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Lopez-Gomez A.,Programa de Infeccion e Inmunidad | Lopez-Gomez A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | And 21 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram negative pathogen that causes acute respiratory infections and is associated with the progression of chronic respiratory diseases. Previous studies have established the existence of a remarkable genetic variability among NTHi strains. In this study we show that, in spite of a high level of genetic heterogeneity, NTHi clinical isolates display a prevalent molecular feature, which could confer fitness during infectious processes. A total of 111 non-isogenic NTHi strains from an identical number of patients, isolated in two distinct geographical locations in the same period of time, were used to analyse nine genes encoding bacterial surface molecules, and revealed the existence of one highly prevalent molecular pattern (lgtF+, lic2A+, lic1D+, lic3A+, lic3B+, siaA-, lic2C+, ompP5+, oapA+) displayed by 94.6% of isolates. Such a genetic profile was associated with a higher bacterial resistance to serum mediated killing and enhanced adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells. © 2011 Martí-Lliteras et al. Source

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