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Foradori M.J.,Program in Vascular Biology | Foradori M.J.,Harvard University | Chen Q.,University of Rhode Island | Fernandez C.A.,Program in Vascular Biology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

In the course of conducting a series of studies whose goal was to discover novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, we havepurified matrilin-1 (MATN-1) and have demonstrated, for the first time, that it inhibits neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Proteins were extracted from cartilage using a 2 M NaCl,0.01 M HEPES buffer at 4 °C, followed by concentration of the extract. The concentrate was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography, and fractions were then screened for their ability to inhibit capillary endothelial cell (EC) proliferation in vitro. Fractions containing EC inhibitory activity were pooled and further purified by cation exchange chromatography. The resulting fractions from this step were then screened to isolate the antiangiogenic activity in vitro. This activity was identified by tandem mass spectrometry as being MATN-1. Human MATN-1 was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity. Purified recombinant MATN-1, along with purified native protein, was shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay by the inhibition of capillary EC proliferation and migration. Finally, using a MATN-1-deficient mouse, we showed that angiogenesis during fracture healing was significantly higher in MATN-1-/- mice compared with the wild type mice as demonstrated by in vivo imaging and by elevated expression of angiogenesis markers including PECAM1, VEGFR, and VE-cadherin. ©2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Pelton K.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Coticchia C.M.,Program in Vascular Biology | Coticchia C.M.,Harvard University | Curatolo A.S.,Program in Vascular Biology | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are linked to an increased prevalence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. A common feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and a Western diet rich in saturated fat is a high level of circulating cholesterol. Epidemiological reports investigating the relationship between high circulating cholesterol levels, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and breast cancer are conflicting. Here, we modeled this complex condition in a well-controlled, preclinical animal model using innovative isocaloric diets. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a low-fat/no-cholesterol diet and then randomized to four isocaloric diet groups: low-fat/no-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe (cholesterol-lowering drug), and high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe. Mice were implanted orthotopically with MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast tumors from animals fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet exhibited the fastest progression. Significant differences in serum cholesterol level between groups were achieved and maintained throughout the study; however, no differences were observed in intratumoral cholesterol levels. To determine the mechanism of cholesterol-induced tumor progression, we analyzed tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis and found a significantly greater percentage of proliferating cells from mice fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Tumors from hypercholesterolemic animals displayed significantly less apoptosis compared with the other groups. Tumors from high-fat/high-cholesterol mice had significantly higher microvessel density compared with tumors from the other groups. These results demonstrate that hypercholesterolemia induces angiogenesis and accelerates breast tumor growth in vivo. © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Roy R.,Program in Vascular Biology | Roy R.,Harvard University | Zurakowski D.,Harvard University | Wischhusen J.,Program in Vascular Biology | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:A majority of patients with pancreatic malignancies, including both pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs), present with advanced disease due to a lack of specific symptoms and current diagnostic limitations, making this disease extremely difficult to detect. Our goal was to determine whether urinary matrix metalloproteases (uMMPs) and/or their endogenous inhibitors, urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (uTIMPs), could be detected in the urine of patients with pancreatic malignancies and whether they may serve as independent predictors of disease status.Methods:Retrospective analyses of urine samples (n=139) from PDAC and pNET patients as well as age- and sex-matched controls were conducted. Urinary MMP-2 and uTIMP-1 levels were determined using ELISA and zymography. Biomarker expression in tumour and normal pancreatic tissues was analysed via immunohistochemistry (IHC).Results:Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that, when controlling for age and sex, uMMP-2 (P<0.0001) and uTIMP-1 (P<0.0001) but not uMMP-9, were significant independent predictors for distinguishing between PDAC patients and healthy controls. Our data also indicated that uMMP-2 was an independent predictor of the presence of pNET. In addition, uTIMP-1 levels could differentiate the two cancer groups, PDAC and pNET, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein expression is significantly upregulated in PDAC tissue compared with the normal pancreas.Conclusions:Taken together, our results suggest that the detection of uMMP-2 and uTIMP-1 may have diagnostic value in the detection of pancreatic malignancies and that uTIMP-1 may be useful in distinguishing between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours. © 2014 Cancer Research UK. Source

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