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Bugger H.,Program in Molecular Medicine | Bugger H.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schwarzer M.,University of Leipzig | Chen D.,Utah State University | And 9 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2010

Aims Impairment in mitochondrial energetics is a common observation in animal models of heart failure, the underlying mechanisms of which remain incompletely understood. It was our objective to investigate whether changes in mitochondrial protein levels may explain impairment in mitochondrial oxidative capacity in pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods and resultsTwenty weeks following aortic constriction, Sprague-Dawley rats developed contractile dysfunction with clinical signs of heart failure. Comparative mitochondrial proteomics using label-free proteome expression analysis (LC-MS/MS) revealed decreased mitochondrial abundance of fatty acid oxidation proteins (six of 11 proteins detected), increased levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits, and upregulation of two tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins. Regulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain subunits was variable, with downregulation of 53 of proteins and upregulation of 25 of proteins. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration was markedly decreased independent of the substrate used (palmitoyl-carnitine -65, pyruvate -75, glutamate -75, dinitrophenol -82; all P < 0.05), associated with impaired mitochondrial cristae morphology in failing hearts. Perfusion of isolated working failing hearts showed markedly reduced oleate (-68; P < 0.05) and glucose oxidation (-64; P < 0.05). Conclusion Pressure overload-induced heart failure is characterized by a substantial defect in cardiac oxidative capacity, at least in part due to a mitochondrial defect downstream of substrate-specific pathways. Numerous changes in mitochondrial protein levels have been detected, and the contribution of these to oxidative defects and impaired cardiac energetics in failing hearts is discussed. Source

Wende A.R.,Program in Molecular Medicine | Soto J.,Program in Molecular Medicine | Olsen C.D.,University of Utah | Pires K.M.P.,Program in Molecular Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Bradykinin signaling has been proposed to play either protective or deleterious roles in the development of cardiac dysfunction in response to various pathological stimuli. To further define the role of bradykinin signaling in the diabetic heart, we examined cardiac function in mice with genetic ablation of both bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1RB2R-/-) in the context of the Akita model of insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes (Ins 2Akita/+). In 5-month-old diabetic and nondiabetic, wild-type and B1RB2R-/- mice, in vivo cardiac contractile function was determined by left-ventricular (LV) catheterization and echocardiography. Reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. Mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis were determined in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers. LV systolic pressure and the peak rate of LV pressure rise and decline were decreased with diabetes but did not deteriorate further with loss of bradykinin signaling. Wall thinning and reduced ejection fractions in Akita mouse hearts were partially attenuated by B1RB2R deficiency, although other parameters of LV function were unaffected. Loss of bradykinin signaling did not increase fibrosis in Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mouse hearts. Mitochondrial dysfunction was not exacerbated by B1RB2R deficiency, nor was there any additional increase in tissue levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, loss of bradykinin B2 receptor signaling does not abrogate the previously reported beneficial effect of inhibition of B1 receptor signaling. In conclusion, complete loss of bradykinin expression does not worsen cardiac function or increase myocardial fibrosis in diabetes. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Mostafavi S.,Stanford University | Ortiz-Lopez A.,Harvard University | Bogue M.A.,The Jackson Laboratory | Hattori K.,Harvard University | And 50 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2014

To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4+ T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4+ T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Davey J.R.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Davey J.R.,University of New South Wales | Humphrey S.J.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Humphrey S.J.,University of New South Wales | And 7 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2012

Insulin stimulates glucose transport in adipocytes by triggering translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane (PM) and several Rabs including Rab10 have been implicated in this process. To delineate the molecular regulation of this pathway, we conducted a TBC/RabGAP overexpression screen in adipocytes. This identified TBC1D13 as a potent inhibitor of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation without affecting other trafficking pathways. To determine the potential Rab substrate for TBC1D13 we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen and found that the GTP bound forms of Rabs 1 and 10 specifically interacted with TBC1D13 but not with eight other TBC proteins. Surprisingly, a comprehensive in vitro screen for TBC1D13 GAP activity revealed Rab35 but not Rab10 as a specific substrate. TBC1D13 also displayed in vivo GAP activity towards Rab35. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab35 but not constitutively active Rab10 reversed the block in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation observed with TBC1D13 overexpression. These studies implicate an important role for Rab35 in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Roth Flach R.J.,Program in Molecular Medicine | Skoura A.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research Unit | Matevossian A.,Program in Molecular Medicine | Danai L.V.,Program in Molecular Medicine | And 16 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Signalling pathways that control endothelial cell (EC) permeability, leukocyte adhesion and inflammation are pivotal for atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Here we demonstrate that the Sterile-20-like mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4), which has been implicated in inflammation, is abundantly expressed in ECs and in atherosclerotic plaques from mice and humans. On the basis of endothelial-specific MAP4K4 gene silencing and gene ablation experiments in Apoe-/-mice, we show that MAP4K4 in ECs markedly promotes Western diet-induced aortic macrophage accumulation and atherosclerotic plaque development. Treatment of Apoe-/-and Ldlr-/-mice with a selective small-molecule MAP4K4 inhibitor also markedly reduces atherosclerotic lesion area. MAP4K4 silencing in cultured ECs attenuates cell surface adhesion molecule expression while reducing nuclear localization and activity of NFκB, which is critical for promoting EC activation and atherosclerosis. Taken together, these results reveal that MAP4K4 is a key signalling node that promotes immune cell recruitment in atherosclerosis. Source

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