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PubMed | Alberta Childrens Hospital, Child Health Evaluative science, Janeway Child Health Center, University of Toronto and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with infection risk in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We conducted a multicentre, prospective cohort study that included children aged 18years with de novo AML. DNA was isolated from blood lymphocytes or buccal swabs, and candidate gene SNP analysis was conducted. Primary outcome was the occurrence of microbiologically documented sterile site infection during chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes were Gram-positive and -negative infections, viridans group streptococcal infection and proven/probable invasive fungal infection. Interpretation was guided by consistency in risk alleles and microbiologic agent with previous literature. Over the study period 254 children and adolescents with AML were enrolled. Overall, 190 (74.8%) had at least one sterile site microbiologically documented infection. Among the 172 with inferred European ancestry and DNA available, nine significant associations were observed; two were consistent with previous literature. Allele A at IL1B (rs16944) was associated with decreased microbiologically documented infection, and allele G at IL10 (rs1800896) was associated with increased risk of Gram-positive infection. We identified SNPs associated with infection risk in paediatric AML. Genotype may provide insight into mechanisms of infection risk that could be used for supportive-care novel treatments.

Billingsley G.,Hospital for Sick Children | Bin J.,Hospital for Sick Children | Fieggen K.J.,University of Cape Town | Duncan J.L.,University of California at San Francisco | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder with 14 BBS genes identified. BBS1, BBS2, BBS4, BBS5, BBS7, BBS8, and BBS9 form a complex called the BBSome, which is believed to recruit Rab8GTP to the primary cilium and promote ciliogenesis. The second group, the chaperonin-like proteins BBS6, BBS10, and BBS12, have been defined as a vertebrate-specific branch of the type II chaperonin superfamily. These may play a role in the regulation of BBSome assembly. Methods and results: Using sequence analysis, the role of BBS6, 10 and 12 was assessed in the patient population comprising 93 cases from 74 families. Systemic and ocular phenotypes were defined. In the study, chaperonin-like BBS gene mutations accounted for the disease in approximately 36.5% of BBS families. A total of 38 different non-polymorphic exonic sequence variants were identified in 40.5% of BBS families (41.9% cases), of which 26 were novel (68%). Six cases had mutations present in more than one chaperonin-like BBS gene. One case with four mutations in BBS10 had a phenotype of overall greater severity. The phenotypes observed were beyond the classic BBS phenotype as they overlapped with characteristics of MKKS (congenital heart defect, vaginal atresia, hydrometrocolpos, cryptorchidism), as well as Alström syndrome (diabetes, hearing loss, liver abnormalities, endocrine anomalies, cardiomyopathy). Conclusions: While overlap between the MKKS and BBS phenotypes has previously been reported for cases with BBS6 mutations, we also observed MKKS phenotypes involving BBS10 and BBS12 and Alström-like phenotypes associated with mutations in BBS1, BBS2, BBS6, BBS7, BBS9, BBS10 and BBS12 for the first time.

Pederson B.A.,Ball State University | Turnbull J.,Program in Genetics and Genome Biology | Epp J.R.,Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health | Weaver S.A.,Ball State University | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2013

Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized neuropathologically by aggregates of abnormally structured glycogen and proteins (Lafora bodies [LBs]), and neurodegeneration. Whether LBs could be prevented by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and whether they are pathogenic remain uncertain. We genetically eliminated brain glycogen synthesis in LD mice. This resulted in long-term prevention of LB formation, neurodegeneration, and seizure susceptibility. This study establishes that glycogen synthesis is requisite for LB formation and that LBs are pathogenic. It opens a therapeutic window for potential treatments in LD with known and future small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthesis. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

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