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Li Y.O.,University of Toronto | Diosady L.L.,University of Toronto | Jankowski S.,PATH Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Ultra Rice®, a reconstituted rice product made by extrusion, has been successfully formulated for the fortification of market rice with vitamin A, iron and vitamin B1. As folic acid deficiency is a major health problem in areas targeted by Ultra Rice® technology, including India, Colombia and Brazil, it seems logical to incorporate folic acid into the existing formulation. The effects of various iron compounds on the storage stability of folic acid were studied. Four commercial ferric pyrophosphate compounds were chosen as iron sources and were added at different concentrations. A food-grade whitener (TiO2) was also tested for its effects on folic acid stability and product colour. Folic acid was generally stable in the prepared rice formulations under high temperature and humidity (40 °C, 60%RH) - with the best sample retaining 95% and >75% of folic acid after 3 and 9 months of storage, respectively. The work demonstrated that folic acid fortification of rice through Ultra Rice® technology is technically feasible. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Kram N.,Emory University | Melgen S.,Emory University | Kedera E.,PATH Program for Appropriate Technology in Health | Collison D.K.,Emory University | And 4 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2016

Objective Dietary practices in Kenya often fail to provide adequate nutrition during the first 1000 days of life, from conception to 2 years of age. We developed and qualitatively assessed the acceptability of easy-to-use dietary tools consisting of a marked bowl, slotted spoon and illustrated counselling card to support appropriate dietary practices during pregnancy, exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding of children aged 6-24 months. Design We conducted qualitative research to assess community acceptability and obtain feedback on the design of the dietary tools. Setting This research took place in urban and rural communities in Western Kenya. Subjects We conducted twelve focus group discussions with community members (mothers, husbands, mothers-in-law, community leaders) and five interviews with government nutritionists to assess acceptability and obtain recommendations on design and delivery of the tools. We conducted 24-28 d of user testing with fourteen pregnant women, fourteen breast-feeding women and thirty-two mothers with infants aged 6-18 months. Results Tools were positively received by communities. Mothers perceived improvements in their own and their children's food intakes including quantity, frequency, consistency and diversity. Many attributed perceived own and child's weight gain and/or increased energy to tool use. A minority reported using the bowl for other activities (n 9) or not using the bowl due to food insecurity (n 5). Conclusions Results suggest that such tools have the potential to positively impact maternal and child dietary practices. Future work should quantitatively assess the impact on diet and nutrition outcomes and the underlying behavioural domains associated with changes. Copyright © The Authors 2015.


Kram N.,Emory University | Melgen S.,Emory University | Kedera E.,PATH Program for Appropriate Technology in Health | Collison D.K.,Emory University | And 4 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objective: Dietary practices in Kenya often fail to provide adequate nutrition during the first 1000 days of life, from conception to 2 years of age. We developed and qualitatively assessed the acceptability of easy-to-use dietary tools consisting of a marked bowl, slotted spoon and illustrated counselling card to support appropriate dietary practices during pregnancy, exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding of children aged 6–24 months. Design: We conducted qualitative research to assess community acceptability and obtain feedback on the design of the dietary tools. Setting: This research took place in urban and rural communities in Western Kenya. Subjects: We conducted twelve focus group discussions with community members (mothers, husbands, mothers-in-law, community leaders) and five interviews with government nutritionists to assess acceptability and obtain recommendations on design and delivery of the tools. We conducted 24–28 d of user testing with fourteen pregnant women, fourteen breast-feeding women and thirty-two mothers with infants aged 6–18 months. Results: Tools were positively received by communities. Mothers perceived improvements in their own and their children’s food intakes including quantity, frequency, consistency and diversity. Many attributed perceived own and child’s weight gain and/or increased energy to tool use. A minority reported using the bowl for other activities (n 9) or not using the bowl due to food insecurity (n 5). Conclusions: Results suggest that such tools have the potential to positively impact maternal and child dietary practices. Future work should quantitatively assess the impact on diet and nutrition outcomes and the underlying behavioural domains associated with changes. Copyright © The Authors 2015

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