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Portland, OR, United States

Boles M.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Adams A.,Community Wellness and Prevention | Gredler A.,26 SW Stark Street | Manhas S.,26 SW Stark Street
Preventive Medicine

Objective: We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. Method: The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n. =. 402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Results: Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Conclusion: Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dent C.W.,Program Design and Evaluation Services
Rural and remote health

Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes premature death and disease in children and non-smoking adults; the home is the primary source of SHS exposure. The aim of this study was to assess variance in the prevalence of children's SHS exposure in Alaskan households with an adult smoker according to rurality, race/ethnicity, income and education, household age composition, marital status, amount smoked each day, and beliefs in SHS health consequences. Telephone interviews were conducted between 2004 and 2007 on a population-based random sample of 1119 Alaskan adult smokers with children living in the household. Respondents living with children over 5 years of age reported a significantly (p <0.05) higher prevalence of home SHS exposure, compared with those living with younger children. Respondents 40 years and older reported significantly more exposure than others. Alaska Native smokers reported significantly lower SHS exposure in their homes than those of other races, as did those living in very rural areas. Respondents' heavier smoking was significantly associated with more SHS exposure. The sub-population of adults living without other adults was approximately 1.5 times more likely to report SHS exposure than those living with other adults. As expected, having a no-smoking rule in the home greatly lowered the risk of SHS exposure in the home. Although most smokers with children believed that SHS is harmful, some need to convert those beliefs into actions. The results from this study suggest that those with school-aged children, and moderate to heavy smokers should be targeted for intervention, given their high prevalence of home SHS exposure. Future work should examine reasons for low exposure levels among Alaska Native people to inform programmatic efforts in other communities. Source

Drach L.L.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Morris D.,Oregon Public Health Division | Cushing C.,Oregon Public Health Division | Romoli C.,Oregon Public Health Division | Harris R.L.,Oregon Public Health Division
Preventing Chronic Disease

We assessed tobacco-related policies and procedures at all state-funded, community-based residential mental health and substance addiction treatment facilities before implementation of new state policy requirements. We conducted telephone interviews with 162 of 166 (98%) facility administrators. Only 15% had voluntarily implemented 100% smokefree campus policies, and 47% offered cessation resources at patient discharge; however, less than 10% expressed opposition to these future requirements. Smoking bans and cessation support in residential treatment facilities can reduce tobacco-related disparities among people with mental illness and addictions, but states may need to be the catalyst for policy implementation. Source

Boles M.,Program Design and Evaluation Services
Preventing Chronic Disease

Introduction Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Methods Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. Results We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. Conclusion The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions. Source

Maher J.E.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Bushore C.J.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Rohde K.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Dent C.W.,Program Design and Evaluation Services | Peterson E.,Tobacco Prevention and Control Program
Addictive Behaviors

Introduction: The tobacco industry has promoted the use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) to smokers as a substitution for cigarettes when smoking is not possible, and some smokers are using SLT this way. However, few publications have examined recent trends in dual cigarette and SLT use (dual use) over time in the U.S. Materials and methods: We examined trends in the use of SLT among current, former and never cigarette smokers using data on adult (aged 18+ years) males (n= 16,590) from the 1996-2008 Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We also examined trends from 2004 to 2008 in cigarette consumption among dual users. Results: Between 1996 and 2008, the overall prevalence of current SLT use and prevalence of current smoking among Alaskan men did not significantly change over time (p-value from age-adjusted models p= .63, p= .09, respectively). When we examined trends in SLT use by smoking status, we found that the prevalence of current SLT use remained unchanged between 1996 and 2008 among former and never smokers, but almost doubled among current smokers (age-adjusted p= .004). Between 2004 and 2008, cigarette consumption remained steady among current smokers who did not use SLT, but significantly decreased among dual users (age-adjusted p< .001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that male smokers in Alaska are increasingly likely to use SLT, but do not appear to be switching to SLT use exclusively. We recommend that other state tobacco control programs examine trends in dual use to confirm our findings, and for programs to continue encouraging cessation of all tobacco products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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