Progen Biotechnik GmbH

Heidelberg, Germany

Progen Biotechnik GmbH

Heidelberg, Germany
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Ayuso E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Blouin V.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Lock M.,University of Pennsylvania | Mcgorray S.,University of Florida | And 38 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2014

Gene therapy approaches using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) and serotype 8 (rAAV8) have achieved significant clinical benefits. The generation of rAAV Reference Standard Materials (RSM) is key to providing points of reference for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for gene transfer vectors. Following the example of the rAAV2RSM, here we have generated and characterized a novel RSM based on rAAV serotype 8. The rAAV8RSM was produced using transient transfection, and the purification was based on density gradient ultracentrifugation. The rAAV8RSM was distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols to 16 laboratories worldwide. Mean titers and 95% confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles (mean, 5.50×1011 pt/ml; CI, 4.26×1011 to 6.75×1011 pt/ml), vector genomes (mean, 5.75×1011 vg/ml; CI, 3.05×1011 to 1.09×1012 vg/ml), and infectious units (mean, 1.26×109 IU/ml; CI, 6.46×108 to 2.51×109 IU/ml). Notably, there was a significant degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This outcome emphasizes the need to use RSMs to calibrate the titers of rAAV vectors in preclinical and clinical studies at a time when the field is maturing rapidly. The rAAV8RSM has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (VR-1816) and is available to the scientific community. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Pieperhoff S.,German Cancer Research Center | Pieperhoff S.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Pieperhoff S.,University of British Columbia | Rickelt S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Recently the protein myozap, a 54-kD polypeptide which is not a member of any of the known cytoskeletal and junctional protein multigene families, has been identified as a constituent of the plaques of the composite junctions in the intercalated disks connecting the cardiomyocytes of mammalian hearts. Using a set of novel, highly sensitive and specific antibodies we now report that myozap is also a major constituent of the cytoplasmic plaques of the adherens junctions (AJs) connecting the endothelial cells of the mammalian blood and lymph vascular systems, including the desmoplakin-containing complexus adhaerentes of the virgultar cells of lymph node sinus. In light and electron microscopic immunolocalization experiments we show that myozap colocalizes with several proteins of desmosomal plaques as well as with AJ-specific transmembrane molecules, including VE-cadherin. In biochemical analyses, rigorous immunoprecipitation experiments have revealed N-cadherin, desmoplakin, desmoglein-2, plakophilin-2, plakoglobin and plectin as very stably bound complex partners. We conclude that myozap is a general component of cell-cell junctions not only in the myocardium but also in diverse endothelia of the blood and lymph vascular systems of adult mammals, suggesting that this protein not only serves a specific role in the heart but also a broader set of functions in the vessel systems. We also propose to use myozap as an endothelial cell type marker in diagnoses.© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Domke L.M.,German Cancer Research Center | Domke L.M.,TU Brandenburg | Domke L.M.,Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Rickelt S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014

The seminiferous tubules and the excurrent ducts of the mammalian testis are physiologically separated from the mesenchymal tissues and the blood and lymph system by a special structural barrier to paracellular translocations of molecules and particles: the "blood-testis barrier", formed by junctions connecting Sertoli cells with each other and with spermatogonial cells. In combined biochemical as well as light and electron microscopical studies we systematically determine the molecules located in the adhering junctions of adult mammalian (human, bovine, porcine, murine, i.e., rat and mouse) testis. We show that the seminiferous epithelium does not contain desmosomes, or "desmosome-like" junctions, nor any of the desmosome-specific marker molecules and that the adhering junctions of tubules and ductules are fundamentally different. While the ductules contain classical epithelial cell layers with E-cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and typical desmosomes, the Sertoli cells of the tubules lack desmosomes and "desmosome-like" junctions but are connected by morphologically different forms of AJs. These junctions are based on N-cadherin anchored in cytoplasmic plaques, which in some subforms appear thick and dense but in other subforms contain only scarce and loosely arranged plaque structures formed by α- and β-catenin, proteins p120, p0071 and plakoglobin, together with a member of the striatin family and also, in rodents, the proteins ZO-1 and myozap. These N-cadherin-based AJs also include two novel types of junctions: the "areae adhaerentes", i.e., variously-sized, often very large cell-cell contacts and small sieve-plate-like AJs perforated by cytoplasm-to-cytoplasm channels of 5-7 nm internal diameter ("cribelliform junctions"). We emphasize the unique character of this epithelium that totally lacks major epithelial marker molecules and structures such as keratin filaments and desmosomal elements as well as EpCAM- and PERP-containing junctions. We also discuss the nature, development and possible functions of these junctions. © 2014 The Author(s).

Pieperhoff S.,German Cancer Research Center | Pieperhoff S.,University of British Columbia | Barth M.,German Cancer Research Center | Rickelt S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Dermatology Research and Practice | Year: 2010

Current cell biology textbooks mention only two kinds of cell-to-cell adhering junctions coated with the cytoplasmic plaques: the desmosomes (maculae adhaerentes), anchoring intermediate-sized filaments (IFs), and the actin microfilament-anchoring adherens junctions (AJs), including both punctate (puncta adhaerentia) and elongate (fasciae adhaerentes) structures. In addition, however, a series of other junction types has been identified and characterized which contain desmosomal molecules but do not fit the definition of desmosomes. Of these special cell-cell junctions containing desmosomal glycoproteins or proteins we review the composite junctions (areae compositae) connecting the cardiomyocytes of mature mammalian hearts and their importance in relation to human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. We also emphasize the various plakophilin-2-positive plaques in AJs (coniunctiones adhaerentes) connecting proliferatively active mesenchymally-derived cells, including interstitial cells of the heart and several soft tissue tumor cell types. Moreover, desmoplakin has also been recognized as a constituent of the plaques of the complexus adhaerentes connecting certain lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we emphasize the occurrence of the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein Dsg2, out of the context of any junction as dispersed cell surface molecules in certain types of melanoma cells and melanocytes. This broadening of our knowledge on the diversity of AJ structures indicates that it may still be too premature to close the textbook chapters on cell-cell junctions. Copyright © 2010 Sebastian Pieperhoff et al.

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