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Rosenstock J.,Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center | Bergenstal R.M.,International Diabetes Center at Park Nicollet | Blevins T.C.,Texas Diabetes and Endocrinology | Morrow L.A.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVEdTo compare effects of LY2605541 versus insulin glargine on daily mean blood glucose as part of a basal-bolus regimen for type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGNANDMETHODSdIn this randomized, Phase 2, open-label, 232 crossover study, 137 patients received once-daily basal insulin (LY2605541 or glargine) plus mealtime insulin for 8 weeks, followed by crossover treatment for 8 weeks. Daily mean blood glucose was obtained from 8-point self-monitored blood glucose profiles. The noninferiority margin was 10.8 mg/dL. RESULTSdLY2605541 met noninferiority and superiority criteria compared with insulin glargine in daily mean blood glucose (144.2 vs. 151.7 mg/dL, least squares mean difference = 29.9 mg/dL [90% CI 214.6 to 25.2], P < 0.001). Fasting blood glucose variability and A1C were reduced with LY2605541 compared with insulin glargine (both P < 0.001). Mealtime insulin dose decreased with LY2605541 and increased with insulin glargine. Mean weight decreased 1.2 kg with LY2605541 and increased 0.7 kg with insulin glargine (P,0.001). The total hypoglycemia rate was higher for LY2605541 (P = 0.04) and the nocturnal hypoglycemia rate was lower (P = 0.01), compared with insulin glargine. Adverse events (including severe hypoglycemia) were similar, although more gastrointestinal-related events occurred with LY2605541 (15% vs. 4%, P < 0.001). Mean changes (all within normal range) were higher for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol and lower for HDL-cholesterol with LY2605541 compared with insulin glargine (all P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONSdIn type 1 diabetes, compared with insulin glargine, LY2605541, a novel, long-acting basal insulin, demonstrated greater improvements in glycemic control, increased total hypoglycemia, and reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia, as well as reducedweight and lowered mealtime insulin doses. Copyright © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Krentz A.J.,University of Bedfordshire | Krentz A.J.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc. | Viljoen A.,University of Bedfordshire | Sinclair A.,University of Bedfordshire
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2013

Clinical metabolic studies have demonstrated that insulin action declines progressively with age in humans. In addition to its close association with Type 2 diabetes, which reduces life expectancy in older people, age-related insulin resistance is implicated in pathogenesis of several highly prevalent disorders for which ageing is a major risk factor. These include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, dementia, frailty and cancer. Accordingly, insulin resistance may be viewed as biomarker of age-related ill health and reduced lifespan. The rapidly rising number of older people, coupled with a high prevalence of insulin resistance resulting from obesity and sedentary lifestyles, presents unprecedented public health and societal challenges. Studies of centenarians have shown that preserved whole-body sensitivity to insulin is associated with longevity. The mechanisms through which insulin action is associated with age-related diseases remain unclear. Changes in body composition, i.e. sarcopenia and excess adiposity, may be more potent than age per se. Moreover, the impact of insulin resistance has been difficult to disentangle from the clustering of vascular risk factors that co-segregate with the insulin resistance-hyperinsulinaemia complex. Potentially modifiable mediators of age-related changes in insulin sensitivity include alterations in adipocytokines, impaired skeletal myocyte mitochondrial function and brown fat activity. The hypothesis that improving or maintaining insulin sensitivity preserves health and extends lifespan merits further evaluation. Practical non-pharmacological interventions directed against age-related insulin resistance remain underdeveloped. Novel metabolically active pharmacological agents with theoretical implications for some age-related disorders are entering clinical trials. However, recent adverse experiences with the thiazolidinediones suggest the need for a cautious approach to the use of insulin sensitizing drugs in older people. This could be particularly important in the absence of diabetes where the risk to benefit analysis may be less favourable. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK. Source


Heinemann L.,Profil Institute fur Stoffwechselforschung GmbH | Heinemann L.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Aim: A good understanding of the relevance of interfering factors having an impact on blood glucose (BG) measurement is needed to obtain the required quality. This depends on the application in which meters designed for self-monitoring of BG (SMBG) are used. Methods: By means of a literature search all publications (from January 1, 1980 to August 10, 2009) were identified that report about the influence of potentially interfering substances/factors on the measurement quality of BG meters. Results: Certain substances (e.g., maltose) can have a profound and misleading impact on the BG measurement result when the enzymatic reaction embedded on the given test strips cross-reacts. Also, a number of other drugs (e.g., acetaminophen) and factors (like temperature and altitude) affect the reliability of BG measurement massively. However, the susceptibility of the BG meter (depending on the enzyme technology of the test strips) differs significantly. Conclusions: In daily practice the factors that have a relevant impact on the reliability of BG measurements with modern BG meters are rarely met. Clearly this also depends on the intended use (SMBG in patient hands vs. point-of-care testing in hospitals). To avoid misleading measurement results requires adequate training of all people involved. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Heinemann L.,Science and Co. | Home P.D.,Northumbria University | Hompesch M.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Biosimilar insulins are approved copies of insulins outside patent protection. Advantages may include greater market competition and potential cost reduction, but clinicians and users lack a clear perspective on 'biosimilarity' for insulins. The manufacturing processes for biosimilar insulins are manufacturer-specific and, although these are reviewed by regulators there are few public data available to allow independent assessment or review of issues such as intrinsic quality or batch-to-batch variation. Preclinical measures used to assess biosimilarity, such as tissue and cellular studies of metabolic activity, physico-chemical stability and animal studies of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity may be insufficiently sensitive to differences, and are often not formally published. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies (glucose clamps) with humans, although core assessments, have problems of precision which are relevant for accurate insulin dosing. Studies that assess clinical efficacy and safety and device compatibility are limited by current outcome measures, such as glycated haemoblobin levels and hypoglycaemia, which are insensitive to differences between insulins. To address these issues, we suggest that all comparative data are put in the public domain, and that systematic clinical studies are performed to address batch-to-batch variability, delivery devices, interchangeability in practice and long-term efficacy and safety. Despite these challenges biosimilar insulins are a welcome addition to diabetes therapy and, with a transparent approach, should provide useful benefit to insulin users. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Devineni D.,Janssen Research and Development LLC | Morrow L.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc. | Hompesch M.,Profil Institute for Clinical Research Inc. | Skee D.,Janssen Research and Development LLC | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Aim: Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 28-day study conducted at two sites, in 29 subjects with T2DM not optimally controlled on insulin and up to one oral antihyperglycaemic agent. Subjects were treated with canagliflozin 100 mg QD or 300 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin were examined. Glucose malabsorption following a 75-g oral glucose challenge was also examined. Results: Canagliflozin pharmacokinetics were dose-dependent, and the elimination half-life ranged from 12 to 15 h. After 28 days, the renal threshold for glucose excretion was reduced; urinary glucose excretion was increased; and A1C, fasting plasma glucose and body weight decreased in subjects administered canagliflozin (A1C reductions: 0.19% with placebo, 0.73% with 100 mg QD, 0.92% with 300 mg BID; body weight changes: 0.03 kg increase with placebo, 0.73 kg reduction with 100 mg QD, 1.19 kg reduction with 300 mg BID). Glucose malabsorption was not observed with canagliflozin treatment. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or severe hypoglycaemic episodes. The incidence of adverse events was similar across groups. There were no clinically meaningful changes in routine laboratory safety tests, vital signs or electrocardiograms. Conclusion: In subjects receiving insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic therapy, canagliflozin was well tolerated without evidence for glucose malabsorption, had pharmacokinetic characteristics consistent with once-daily dosing, and improved glycaemic control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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